Transfer of learning

  • positive
  • negative
  • proactive
  • retroactive
  • bilateral
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Positive transfer

  • where one skill helps the learning / performing of another skill
  • eg. throwing transfers positively to the racket arm action of a tennis serve
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Negative transfer

  • where one skill hinders the learning / performance of another 
  • eg. loose wrist required to play badminton transfers negatively to the firm wrist needed to play a tennis shot
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Proactive transfer

  • where a previously learned skill influences a skill currently being learned
  • eg. a throwing motor programme learned as a child will later transfer proactively to an overarm volleyball serve
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Retroactive transfer

  • where a newly learned skill influences a previously learned skill
  • eg. the aquisition of a tennis serve influences the previously learned overarm throw in cricket
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Bilateral transfer

  • the capacity of a predominantly right sided performer to perform a skill with the left side of the body
  • eg. footballer who can shoot with their left and right foot equally
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Optimising the effects of positive transfer

  • demonstrations must be clear and concise
  • environmental conditions should be similar to real situation
  • elements of information processing must be similar
  • the more similar the practice is to the performance scenario, the greater the chance of positive transfer
  • previously learned skills should be well learned
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Limiting the effect of negative transfer

  • performer must be helped to understand the requirements of the task
  • attention should be given to motor programmes that transfer positively to a skill
  • similar skills should should not be learned close together
  • learning environment should be the same as game or competition
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