Transfer of learning

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  • Transfer of learning
    • Positive
      • when a skill enhances the learning and performance of another skill
        • The throwing action and the racket arm action of a tennis serve
    • Negative
      • when a skill hinders the learning and performance of another skill.
        • Temporary and can be overcome e.g. loose to strong wrist from badminton to tennis.
    • Proactive
      • Where a previously learned skill influences a skill currently being learned
        • a throwing motor programme positively and proactively transfers to a volleyball serve
    • Retroactive
      • A new skill aids a previously learned skill.
        • A tennis serve may influence a over arm cricket throw
    • Bilateral
      • where the learning of a skill with one limb can be transferred to the opposite limb
        • Motor control explanation:
          • Schema for movement already present for one side of body. modified for new limb
        • Cognitive explanation:
          • thinking about skill may improve transfer
        • Occurs between arm and arm/leg and leg e.g. throwing with both arms
    • Zero
      • No link between prior and present learning.
        • a football kick would have no effect on a swimming kick
    • Optimizing effects of positive transfer
      • Making learner aware of transferable elements
      • Clear demonstration to aid transfer
      • creating a learning situation that allows positive transfer
      • Recreating similar environment to competition
      • Reinforcement and strengthening of S-R bonds. good foundations for learning skills
    • limiting effects of negative transfer:
      • matching environment to game situation
      • make sure performer understands requirements of the task
      • Attention focused on motor programmes that positively transfer
      • Part presentation method:- first sub routine fully learned before second attempted
  • Negative
    • when a skill hinders the learning and performance of another skill.
      • Temporary and can be overcome e.g. loose to strong wrist from badminton to tennis.

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