Transfer explains the effect that the learning of one skill may have on the learning of another skill.
There are 6 types of transfer
1. Positive transfer: occurs when the learning of one skill facilitates the learning of another skill
2. Negative transfer: occurs when the learning of one skill inhibits the learning of an additional skill
3. Proactive transfer: occurs when a previously learned skill has an effect on a skill learned later. It can be positive or negative.
4. Retroactive transfer: occurs when new skills influence the learning and performance of a skill learned previously. This can also be postive or negative.
5. Bilateral transfer: is the transfer of skills from one side of the body to the opposite side.
6. Zero transfer: occurs when there are no similarities between the tasks and therefore there is no effect on either skill.
To ensure +ve transfer, the coach should:
- ensure that the performer's first skill is grooved
- highlight the potential for transfer
- ensure that the practice environment for both skills is similar
- make practice sessions as close to the game situation as possible
- give praise, reinforcement and rewards when positive transfer takes place as this will motivate the performer
To limit the effects of -ve transfer, the coach should:
- ensure that the first skill is grooved before the second skill is presented
- highlight the differences in the skills, and therefore the potential for -ve transfer
- ensure that the performer understands all the components of the skill