Topic 1: Establishment and early years of the Wiemar Republic 1918-1924

  • Created by: Br_e
  • Created on: 20-04-19 19:08

Abdication of the Kaiser

October reforms 

  • Prince Max appointed Chancellor, responsible for the Reichstag
  • Government based on majority parties and controlled the army
  • "Revolution from above" to avoid abdication of the Kaiser

The peace note 

  • Allies demand unconditional surrender and the abdication of the Kaiser
  • German public demand an end to the war but Kaiser refuses to abdicate

The November Revolution

  • Strikes and  mutinies Groener tell the Kaiser the army accept his authority his control
  • Prince Max says the Kaiser has abdicated then resigns, Ebert of the SPD becomes Chancellor
  • The Kaiser abdicates

Ebert-Goerner Pact

  • Spartacist revolt is crushed by the army and Freikorps
  • 1919 Spartacists are crushed and Rosa Luxemburg is killed
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Establishment of the Wiemar constitution 1919

Constituent assembly

  • SPD formed a coalition with Zentrum + DDP, Ebert elected President and Schneiderman appointed chancellor.

Strengths

  • Elected President 
  • Enlarged franchise (men and women 20+)
  • Freedom of the individual guaranteed

Weaknesses

  • Coalitions 
  • Proportional representation (no. of votes = no. of seats)
  • Article 48

Undemocratic Institutions

  • Army ( aristocracy, independent for the government, favour right-wing groups)
  • Civil service (higher levels dominated by the aristocracy)
  • Judiciary ( rulings favoured right-wing groups over the left wing)
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