Under The Waterfall- Plot and Form.
- The speaker places their hand in a basin and recalls a waterfall that makes them think of their love.
- The 1st stanza describes the valley, the 2nd is reminiscing about memories spent there.
- The speaker recalls the picnic had there and that the lost a glass which they never found again.
- Reminiscent of past times.
- Unclear who the voice belongs to until the end- a woman
- Speech marks show that someone is talking to another person.
- Emma given a voice within the poem.
At an Inn- Stanza 1 and 2
- A secret meeting at an inn is occurring between Hardy and Florence. 'Veiled' suggests secret and hidden.
- The hosts believe they have a romantic relationship.
- 'Strangers sought' suggests a colloquial journey, not strangers- a mask to hide the truth.
- 'Which quicks the world' humans are quick to fall in love
- Religious references used throughout- Hardy feeling guilty, against his religion.
Under The Waterfall- Structure, Language and Conte
- Long and flowing like a waterfall- long letters.
- Length can represent how long ago the event was.
- Rhyming couplets- represent Emma and Hardy's relationship.
- Has Iambic Tetrameter- four stressed syllables, four unstressed syllables.
- Lots of sibilance- sounds like the waterfall.
- Written in 1914
- Written as an Eclogue- a classical poem about nature.
At an Inn- Stanza 3, 4 and 5
- When alone there is no romance- ironic as hosts believe there is romance between them.
- Death references- there relationship is dead/ relationship never alive.
- Despite the host's thoughts, there relationship did not become romantic or physical.
- Love is personified in a negative way- 'love lingered numb'.
- Hardy wants to gain their relationship back before they die.
- Can't have the relationship they want.
- 'Severing' violent word for separation
The Convergence of the Twain- Stanza 1 and 2
- Introduces the topic of the poem- the Titanic.
- 'Deep from human vanity'- already sank and secluded.
- Vanity could also be Captain Smith's who refused to change the direction of the ship despite receiving six warnings.
- Smith often boasted of his safe record at sea- vanity.
- Juxtaposes cold and hot- life and death- majestic ship and sinking ship
- 'Pyres' are used to burn bodies in funerals- emphasises death and loss.
- 'Rhythmic tidal'- calm and peaceful. Contrasts with the chaos on the ship.
The Going- Stanza 1, 2 and 3.
- Addresses the dead Emma asking why she gave no warning of her death.
- 'Close your term'- cold and techniqual language.
- A coldness within their relationship- 'indifferent quite'
- 'Saw morning harden upon the wall'- metaphor expresses the extent of their separation.
- 'Unmoved, unknowing' reinforces this.
- Hardy imagines he sees her in familiar places, resentful language used- 'make me'.
- Rhyme and repetition shows bitterness.
The Convergence of the Twain- Stanza 3 and 4
- Compares the passengers of the ship with sea- worms.
- 'Dumb, indifferent'- voice of the poem resents the sea- worm, using harsh, bitter language.
- Mirror reflects the wealthy passengers initially, but now reflects the sea- worm as the ship has sunk.
- Hints towards the speaker of the poem- 'joy designed' connotates a craftsman who worked aboard the ship.
- The jewels are now meaningless in the sea as there is no light to make them sparkle.
The Going- Stanza 4, 5 and 6
- Hardy recalls places they visited when they were in love- 'Beeny Crest'.
- 'Swan-Necked' shows Emma's beauty, the things Hardy fell in love with.
- Contrasts with the previous stanza's tone.
- Describes the breakdown in their relationship.
- Regrets they did not reconcile before Emma's death.
- 'Well, well!' sounds conversational.
- Pessimistic ending
The Convergence of the Twain- Stanza 5 and 6
- Refers to the fish that now live in the Titanic.
- Personifies the fish- inquirers about the boat- they wonder why the boat is there, so out of place.
- Stanza 5 asks a question that stanza 6 answers.
- Answers the question in stanza 5.
- The speaker talks about creating a beautiful ship. Destiny is mapped by the boat travelling through the water.
The Voice- Stanza 1 and 2
- Hardy imagines voice of Emma talking to him, when they were together.
- ' Call to me, call to me'- repetition is haunting, reinforces her death.
- 'Can it be you that I hear?' contrasts to the previous line, where he can no longer see her. Reflects the distance between Hardy and Emma when she died.
The Convergence of the Twain- Stanza 7 and 8
- Explains the destiny of the Titanic. Hardy reveals the Titanic's mate is the iceberg and personifies the iceberg as sinister.
- Also shows the contrast between the iceberg and the ship, although they are meant to meet.
- Parallels the iceberg and the Titanic.
- 'Smart ship'- ironic as the ship is not smart enough to avoid the iceberg.
- Refers to iceberg in negative context- describes it as 'shadowy silent'.
The Voice- Stanza 3 and 4
- Begins to doubt he can hear her.
- 'Listlessness/ wistlessness'- echoing and delicate, disappears like the ghost.
- Lonely ending.
- Alliteration of 'f' shows Hardy's awkwardness, loses hope of seeing Emma.
- Landscape emphasises feelings
- Echo's the poems beginning
The Convergence of the Twain- Stanza 9, 10 and 11
- It is destiny the ship and iceberg will meet, can’t predict when this will be.
- 'No mortal eye could see'- , a superior force knew the fate and created the fate of the iceberg and the Titanic.
- Hardy personifies the term 'paths' which can be seen as giving the Titanic and the iceberg a life's destiny.
- Hardy ends the poem by stating the two have met.
- The "hemispheres" refer to the battle of two sides. Nature won this battle and the Titanic rests at the bottom of the sea.
At Castle Boterel- Stanza 1, 2 and 3
- Hardy is visiting places in Cornwall where he and Emma spent time.
- Begins like a story, told in the first person.
- Recalls a particular moment from that time.
- Night falls as they walk.
- The dry weather is less depressing- reminds him of happier times in their relationship.
- Lots of details- vividly remembers this time.
- Whatever they said cannot be regretted or denied.
Neutral Tones- Staza 1 and 2
- The scene and atmosphere is set.
- In the second line we get very neutral monosyllabic words.
- The very dismal atmosphere is shown by the use of the alliteration creating a lazy tone.
- The sibilance creates a harsh sound.
- Explores deeper into the nature of their relationship.
- The insignificance of their communication exposed through the tired and morbid undertone seen in lines such as 'And some words played between us to and fro'.
At Castle Bosteral- Stanza 4, 5, 6 and 7
- 'A time of such quality'- all that matters is that they spent time together.
- Landscape is immortal like their relationship, both are enduring.
- Hardy tries to defy time; even though he is old his memory is still strong.
- 'Unflinching rigour'- reinforces personification of time.
- Emma's ghost is shrinking away.
- Poem ends pessimistically- Hardy is old and dying.
Neutral Tones- Stanza 3 and 4
- Describing her smile contains an oxymoron. Normally a facial gesture associated with happiness and joy, is described as 'the deadest thing'. This provokes strong emotion in the reader.
- A use of symbolism is the 'ominous bird a-wing', foreshadowing to the final stanza, representing his shattered trust.
- The stanza is one of despair; this is done without breaking the neutral tone. The narrator uses phrases like 'love deceives' indicating an inner pain
- The poem ends using neutral monosyllabic words. The change in the character becomes obvious, now referring to the sun as the 'God-curst sun' - emotions changing from sadness to anger.
Afterwards- Stanza 1, 2 and 3
- Hardy describes his death, relates it to nature.
- Emphasis on time.
- Delicate imagery.
- Flight of the hawk and his own death expressed like this.
- Wants to be remembered as someone who cared about nature.
- 'Nocturnal blackness'- soft tone.
The Darkling Thrush- Stanza 1 and 2
- Establishes the tone and setting of the poem.
- The presence of frost tells readers it is winter, and ‘spectre-grey’ suggests a haunted landscape.
- Hardy uses ‘score' to create an ominous visual image.
- The land becomes a map of everything that has happened over the last century.
- States that the century is dead (written 31st December 1900).
- Installs some of the techniques of poets from the Romantics.
- ‘Spirit’ is referring to people as ghosts- consumed by death.
Afterwards- Stanza 4 and 5
- Steady rhythm.
- Sounds like an elegy.
- Hardy says he sees mysteries in nature.
- Hardy will live on through memories of nature.
The Darkling Thruch Stanza 3 and 4
- The speaker hears a happy song, contrasts from all of the death that they have been thinking about.
- The song comes from the thrush.
- The frail bird is stuck in a storm- the speaker wonders how the bird can survive and sing in the storm.
- The speaker is gathering momentum as they are distracted by the bird.
- They become confused as to how the bird can sing when the surroundings show death.
- Implicitly begins to question themselves.
- The last two lines bring in the new century.
The Haunter- Stanza 1, 2, 3 and 4
- Written in the first person, voice of Emma, addressing the reader. Hardy doesn't know she is there. 'Hover and hover a few feet from him'- Closer in death than in life.
- Contrast between what he hopes for and what is real. Hopeful he has been forgiven.
- Still there as he visits places from the past. Hopes cannot be reality, only dreams.
- Reminded of Hardy's love of nature.
- Suggestion of forgiveness. Appeals to the reader.