Thomas Hardy Poems

Revision notes on thr 11 poems needed for AQA Literature B.

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  • Created by: Jagjeet
  • Created on: 24-03-12 20:33

Thomas Hardy context

  • 20th Century poet/ Victorian Era
  • key leitmotifis nature, preseveration of landscape-> Rime of the Ancient Mariner, the Hermit cares for nature, very holy.
  • social poverty in London, Churches are top of hierarchy, social standard lower than Emma-> Great Gatsby, Myrtle and Tom's relationship
  • darkness and gloomy feel of poems reflect his depression after losing Emma and distinct darkness in social differences
  • Brought up a Christian but religious conflict and own ideas begin to conflict.
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The Going

Plot:

"The Going", like most of the poems about Emma, is written in the first person; here Hardy evidently speaks for himself. The poem is in the form of a monologue addressed to Emma, containing many questions, the answers to which only she can supply.

Title:

The verb shows the movement from life and death. The present tense illustrate not lost yet shows suppernatural happening. 'The' is single and objectifies this shows signifance to hardy. Going is also quite ambigiuous because it is short and blunt and shows a sense of loss because you have to leave something behind.

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The Going

Form:

-Elargic poem to praise Emma.

-irritated tone established 'And think for a breath it is you I see' in third stanza to show the build up of emotions as Hardy rememberd the original Emma he fell in love with, a very slim girl who has now gained weight and changed into someone he doesn't love.

-selfish perspective in final stanza to show ultimately that Hardy is upset and in despair. This is shocking as it is in the ultimate stanza and is therefore used to illustrate that someons as strong as Hardy has broken down 'Not even I - would undo me so!'.

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The Going

Structure:

-identations are commonly used for pauses however Hardy defies this structure by using the representing verbs and possible actions alongside the identations to show the length he would go to get the Emma he fell in love with back.

-ABABCCB rhyme scheme which is regular and consistent throughout the poem to show that he will always blame Emma for leaving and changing from the girl he fell in love with.

-mixture of metre to show heightened emotions trochee shows feminine grief whereas dimeter shows anger and tetrameter shows some control and understanding in life.

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The Going

Language:

-authorative language such as 'Why did you give no hint that night' shows that Hardy blames Emma for dying so suddenly. The second person usage and repitive 'you' shows how Emma died whilst their relationship was unresolved.

-satirical language 'Well, well!' shows that Hardy hates Emma for leaving so abruptly and that there is no point feeling upset about her loss becaise there is nothing he can do to recover the past. Also shows how Hardy is quite selfish because throughout the poem he puts the blame of their relationship breakdown on Emma.

-sorrowful language 'Where I could not follow' suggests that Hardy is helpless. Dramatic irony used here because Hardy wants to go to impossible means just to see Emma but when she was alive he didn't appreciate or take care of her.

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The Going

Language:

-religious language 'And think for a breath it is you I see' this quotation shows Hardy beginning to quesion his rligious upbringing because it suggests that Emma is haunting him after she has died. The idea of reincarnation is not supported by the Christian faith and therefore shows Hardy's confusion because religion and belief.

-natural language 'Of the perspective sickens me!' used to illustrate how the leitmotif of nature, a stron interest of Hardy's has been altered by Emma's death; that he is no longer able to look at nature in the same way. This is accentuated by the explanation to illustrate that Emma ruined Haardy's conceptual scheme by becoming part of the natural world.

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The Going

Literal devices:

-ellipsis shows the breakdwon of his relationship with Emma and therefore he is unable to accept her death so he uses youthanism such as the 'great going'. This is emphasised by the alliterate 'g' to show how he blames Emma for leaving so willingly.

-rhetorical questions such as 'That time's renewal?' established a child like tone and shows *** Hardy is persistant to know why Emma left so suddenely and willingly. Also suggests his confusionf because he offered her and opprtunity to get back together and rekindle relationship but she left.

-rhyming couplets are used to show that Hardy is thinking in a logical manner and because they are used throughout the poem it shows that Hardy will continue to blame Emma for his repititive suffering.

-exclamation marks are used to create dramatic tension in ultimate stanza 'Well, well!' because they show catharsis and the climax of the poem as Hardy accentuates his emotions and feelings about her loss.

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The Voice

Plot:

Hardy hears the voice of Emma and reminisces about their time together. He presents this as three different moments: the beginning of their relationship, the latest days of it, and the present. At the start Hardy loved Emma, then he hated her as she changed from the woman he once loved, and then he felt lonely as she died. The speaker hears her voice, looks back at their time together and expresses a feeling of grief, regret, guilt, and ultimately loneliness.

Title:

From the title Hardy is trying to objectify Emma's voice if it were the only voice that exists. By doing so Hardy is showing his affection for Emma and trying to reattach himself to her as if she were still alive. This conception is accenuated by the uppercase 'V' to show how he looked up to her and will do anything to get her back. It also shows Hardy's suffering as he is unable to come to terms with her death because he calls the poem 'The Voice' not 'Emma's Voice'.

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The Voice

Form:

-lyrical poem

-uses imagery to show the contrasts of dreamlike imagination and crushing reality; and five senses to create a vivid perception for the reader.

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The Voice

Structure:

-4 quatrain stanzas to express his guilt, regret, guilt and loneliness + tenses

-first three stanzas have regular rhyme schemes ABAB to show his logical manner in reminiscing because goes from past to present.

-the active vocabulary lexicon on the second line of each stanza shows that he is very anger and annoyed because he of Emma

-2nd person usage creates a blameful tone and makes the reader feel sad lamentable

-irregularity in the final stanza shows how Emma has fused into the natural world distoring his appearance of nature and making him feel lonely. iamabic trimeter

-Speaker established a egotistical and authorative tone.

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The Voice

Language:

-natural language 'leaves around me falling' uses as an extended metaphor to show how that withouth the love of Emma he himself is mentally falling. Accentuated by the use of pathetic fally because the 'wind oozing' depicts Hardy's suffering.

-romantic lanague 'original air-blue grown!' this was the clothes Emma was wearing when he first saw her and also Hardy systamatically uses air to show how that his love for Emma was equal to his love for nature.

-rhetorical language 'Can it be you that I hear?' these question marks create a childish tone suggesting Hardy is confused and uncertain.

-scientifical language 'You being ever dissolved' use of scientifical language contrasts with religous language to show religous conflict as Emma suddenly vanished and could suggest their relationship was experimental.

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The Voice

Literal devices:

-onomatopoeia in the ultimate stanza 'oozing' this creates imagery and rhythm, used to present Emma's voice haunting him.

-repition of 'woman' at start and end of poem to create a circular structure and suggests that there is nor more that Hardy can do.

-pathetic fallacy the 'leaves around falling' this foreshadows Hardy's breakdown and depression as he 'faltering forward'. This is accentuated by the used of alliterate 'f' which showcases sorrow and gried because the sounds are quite soft showing Hardy's vulnerability

-personal pronouns such as 'I' are used to establish a dramtic voice in the first stanza notice how this depreciates throughout the poem as Hardy becomes lonely.

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Under the Waterfall

Plot:

This recalls a picinic Emma and Hardy had somewhere in Dorset and she dropped her drinking-glass in the water and could not retrieve it.Was prelude to the 20th Century because it was written when their marriages was deteriorating, and this was in a century when love was believed to be eternal. Is about the everlasting power of nature "its lasting presence"

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Under the Waterfall

Form:

-is written in the voice of Emma (hence why the use of quotations)

-Female speaker presents the sequence of events in sorrowful tone as the now long forgotten glass remained under the water untouched as a melancholy remainder of their lost relationship.

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Under the Waterfall

Structure:

-the irregularity in the stanzas are very childish and suggest that it Hardy is remembering their relationship when they were in their youth. Alternatively the stanza shapes could symbolise the flow of a waterfall and mimics how their relationship has ups and downs.

-indentations gives an accumulative effect that shows their relationship does not have eternal love so is falling.  

-the first three stanzas are in tetrameter suggests that he is trying to reminisce the good memories of their relationship.

- uses a mixture of iambic and anapestic metre to create a conversational style

-last stanza is incongruous to show the unity between the lovers and that Emma loved Hardy only.

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Under the Waterfall

Language:

-natural language 'Of blue with a leaf-wove awning of green'. The use of blue and green are nature associated colours and suggest that nature and love is eternal.

-romantic language 'My lover and I' this shows that both Hardy and Emma were in love with each other. Also the first person usage showcases how Hardy felt subjugated by Emma.

-mathematical language 'About three spans wide and two spans tall' this reflects the social differences in London as Hardy was socially inferior to Emma, so Emma's lexicon would have been of a higher degree.

-satirical language 'Idea to you of a real love-rhyme?' the use of questions mark suggests that Emma is mocking Hardy for he loved poetry and nature more than her as he didn't take good care of her when she was living.

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Under the Waterfall

Literal devices:

-rhyming couplets establish a childish tone and create a youthful atmosphere and represent at the time there was unity between Emma and Hardy.

-onomatopoeic diction on lines 13-16 such as 'peaces' and 'speaks' creates rhythm to illustrate the sounds of the waterfall.

-sibilance used throughout the poem shows their romance

-lots of caesura to create dramatic tension and create rhythm in the poem to reflect a waterfall and to show elation.

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The Convergence of the Twain

Plot:

This poem is about fate and man's destiny. both of which we have no control over Hardy presents these conceptions by focusing on the Titanic as it shows how the crew had no control over what was about to happen.

Notice the epigraph (Lines on the loss of the Titanic) is used to show that the poem is about the Titanic.

He starts by talking about the scene of the Titanic at the bottom of the sea and how strong she is. Then becomes ironic because the builders of the Titantic took no safety provisions and now only sea worms can admire the Titanic.

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The Convergence of the Twain

Form:

-Hardy uses concrete poetry to show the movements of the waves and the collision causing the Titanic to sink.

-simple narration

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The Convergence of the Twain

Structure:

-tercets, stanzas consisting of three lines

-uses roman numeral to show the chnrological events that lead to the inevitable loss that is the Titanic

-the AAA rhyme scheme shown in each verse creates a lack of freedom seen by the crew because each stanza has the same rhyme scheme this shows how Hardy was devstated to hear about the Titanic.

- uses little caesura to create dramatic tension because it means the reader must read the poem with speed suggesting that the collision occured very quickly.

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The Convergence of the Twain

Language:

-satirical language 'And query: 'What does this vaingloriousness down here?' this suggests that Hardy is mocking the builders of the Titanic because they did not make any room for safety provisions and now only sea worms can admire it.

-luxury adjectives such as 'smart' and 'salamandrine' these suggest that the Titanic was meant to be unsinkable however once fate deals her cards she does not distinguish between the rich or the poor.

-hyperbolical language 'salamandrine fires' are used to create imagery that the ship was a undestrictable design of modern technology, also it suggests that the ship is omnipotent and can defy fate.

-philosophical language 'The Immanent Will that stirs and urges everything' are used to sh a force, that commands the collision punishing "human vanity" by sinking mankind most prized creation.

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The Convergence of the Twain

Literal Devices:

-alliteration 'Gaze at the gilded gear' the alliterate g shows how beautiful the Titanic was and how horrifying it was to see it sink, also it shows that it was inevitable because God had already decided this is seen by 'grace'.

-enjambement. although the verses are separated by roman numerals some do not have a full stop at the end this shows that the collision had already been predetermined as their is flow in the structure of the poem.

-stanzas 1-5 act as an extended metaphor for marriage because the 'steel chambers' are used to represent the vowels held by the marriage couple but the 'jewels' representing the good times eventually break down this represents his own personal problems with Emma.

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Neutral Tones

Plot:

The poem starts by introducing the scene as the lovers are near a pond. He says there are a 'few leaves' this could suggest death is approaching or could be used to show how their love is dying. As the poem progresses the stanzas become more hyperbolical and shows how their relationship has turned for the worse. The final stanza is all about despair and shows the breakdown of their relationship. The poem is ultimately showing how dramatic their relationship is being at both extremes of the continuum.

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Neutral Tones

Form:

-dramatic monologue

-The speaker addresses an estranged lover and reminisces about a foreseen moment in their past, which anticipated the demise of their relationship

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Neutral Tones

-four tetrameter quatrains

-The first three stanzas describe the past incident, and the fourth stanza reflects upon this incident and the nature of love. It is a sad, pessimistic poem that portrays love as painful and doomed.This is why Hardy uses an elipsis at the end of the third stanza to show the difference between the third and fourth stanza.

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Neutral Tones

Structure:

-In fact, throughout the entire poem, it never changes from the ABBA formation. Hardy does this purposefully to show the static nature of the poem's content. Keeping the rhyme scheme from varying at all through the course of the poem highlights the couple's loss of passion and their lack of change.

-Circular structure starts and ends with reference to the pond this show how the relationship is soo doomed that not even the structure of the poem is moving.

-Through his use of imagery, construction of the poem, and paradoxes, Hardy creates a bleak world of once-beautiful things lying in despair which invokes a sense of hopelessness and melancholia in the reader.

-The staggered indentions show heartbeat emotions because at first he is just feeling annoyed and angry but then he is feeling sad.

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Neutral tones

Poetic devices:

-pathetic fallacy 'winter day' this suggests a cold environment and establishes the blankness depicted throughout the poem because he wants to show the coldness of their relationship in the poem.

-alliteration 'And wrings with wrong' the w creates a whilsting sound and illustrates how Hardy's voice was hidden and aside to Emma's.

-use of colour reverses the traditional imagery of a sun by referring to the sun as 'white' and uses 'gray' these dull colours suggest the relaity of their relationship and also suggest a state of limbo as gray is in between black and white.

-methaphor 'The smile on your mouth was the deadest thing' this shows how Hardy has used something so harmless and delicate as a smile to be posion like, this suggests that

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Neutral Tones

Language:

-repititive langauge to establish the message of the poem e.g. 'eyes' are repeated to show that Emma was looking at Hardy she wasn't feeling any love or passion her eyes were actually elsewhere. Same problems are occuring.

-natural language 'And a pond edged with grayish leaves.' the use of pond could represent their marriage as ponds are circular however the grayish leaves amongest the pond could show that the darkness and breakdown in their relationship.

-body associated language 'Your face' 'Your eyes' 'The smile on your mouth' this creates an authortative tone that shows it is hardy who is subjugated by Emma's needs, due to the 2nd person usage.

-harsh language 'grin of bitterness' the uses of bitterness gives harsh sounds which suggests the breakdown of their relationship and makes the reader feel empathy because it appears Hardy is a victim.

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The Darkling Thrush

Plot

It is the end of the year and Hardy remebers that everything around him is rotting and decaying. All of a sudden a birds voice is heard but it is not perfect it has been damaged by the extreme weather conditions. The presence of the bird establishes the message or question Hardy presents, this is why should you be so joyful in a depressing world? However Hardy does not seem to question the bird's presence but merely remains sceptical.

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The Darkling Thrush

Form

-anthologized lyric

-Thomas Hardy’s gloomy poem about the turn of the twentieth century, “The Darkling Thrush as it was written on the eve of the new century.

-dramatic narrator

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The Darkling Thrush

Structure:

-consist of 4 stanzas- four octet stanzas, 8 lined stanzas

-thirty-twoline poem uses a bleak and wintry landscape as a metaphor for the close of the nineteenth century and the joyful song of a solitary thrush as a symbolic image of the dawning centur

-ABABCDCD rhyme scheme

-written in iambic tetrameter, with lines one, three, five, and seven carrying four stressed syllables (tetrameter) , and lines two, four, six, and eight carrying three stressed syllables (trimeter). This shows how the the bird singing is incongrous to the leitmotif of despair in the poem.

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The Darkling Thrush

Language:

-hyperbolical language 'The Century's corpse' this shows how Hardy is exaggerating the bleak mood of the last century yet remains sinsiter about the next century.

-gloomy language this is represented by Hardy's lexicon such as 'spectre' this means ghost. This archaic termonoly helps establish a sense of horror and suggests that the landscape has been haunted.

-bitter language 'Winter's dregs made desolate' the sharp d sounds suggest that Hardy is not hopeful for the new century and foreshadows for gloomy events yet to come.

-authoratative language as seen by the personal pronouns 'I' suggesting that Hardy's opinoins on the new century are superior to others.

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The Darkling Thrush

Poetic devices:

-assonance in second stanza is used to foreshadow the melancholy of the bird voice that arises in stanza three. It is also used to reflect the dramatic tension in the poem because Hardy's views are very sinsiter on the mark of the century.

-sibilance is used to create soft sounds in order to better suit the bird and also represents the smooth transition into the twentieth century as everything remains the same.

-alliteration 'blast-beruffled' gives sharp sounds to establish the bitter noise of the wind this suggests that even the weather is weary of the new century.

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At an Inn

Plot:

-the poem is about a very close friend Florence. It appears that Hardy was seeing Florence whilst Emma was alive, however due to Florence's religous upbringing she was confined to be nothing more than friends with Hardy. Hardy describes when he and Florence would go to the Inn for private togetherness but their relationship was nonetheless platonic.

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At an Inn

Form:

-lay (long narrative) poem

-contradicts to the tone in previous poems, more happy as Hardy like to be the centre of attention.

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At an Inn

Structure:

-8 line stanzas, 5 stanzas

-ABABCDCD rhyme scheme, it is regular throughout th epoem to show that although their is love between Florence and Hardy it is not moving due to Emma's presence and religion. Ironic rhyme scheme to suggest that their relationship is acceptable in society.

-stanza length are very short to suggest that Hardy wants to keep their relationship a secret because he wants it to progress into something  more than friends.

-ends with an exclamation mark at the end of the poem to show that he is happy being in Florence's company and ejoys how he likes the attention as others watch them enter the Inn together as seen by the exclamation mark at the end of stanza two.

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At an Inn

Language

-jealous language 'Ah, God, that bliss like theirs' the shopkeeper is jealous of Hardy's and Florence's relationship and wishes for a smiliar relationship.

-colloquial language as uses 'Ere death' to suggest that Hardy hopes that after Emma's death, his relationship with Florence will progress.

-romantic language 'Us more than friends' here Hardy suggests their is unity between Florence and himself because he says 'us' also he suggests that outlookers think that there is more between them which is persuading him to love Florence.

-fate Hardy uses fate to suggest that he was destined for Florence because they are left alone in a room 'As Love's own pair' this suggests that even in the stars they were meant to be together.

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At an Inn

Poetic Devices:

-Juxtaposition of love and death in second stanza as his love for Florence is growing alongside his hatred for Emma until her death simultaneously. This suggests that Emma is preventing their relationship from growing.

-rhetorical questions in stanza three create a childish tone as Hardy appear to be annoyed by the outlookers commenting on their friendship, but Hardy like the attention this is seen by the lack of punctuation to create dramatic tension and speed as they are meeting in secret.

-'Loves own pair' gives love a capital letter to suggest that it is a powerful object that is necessary in human nature and without love people are lonely.

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At Castle Boterel

Plot:

-this poem is about a visit to Cornwall by Hardy after Emma's death. Castle Boterel is about a mile from St. Juliot (where Emma lived). Hardy recalls a particular incident that took place and begins reminiscing about what happened between Emma and himself. Cornwall is very important to parts of Hardy's works because it represents the good memories they had together.

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At Castle Boterel

Form:

-dramatic monologue

-spoken in present tense to show that although the event occured in the past it is more important to him now because it allows him to understand what happened between him and Emma. 

-narrative perspective given by Thomas Hardy and talks from past to an event 'A time of such quality' this suggests his past is his reality because he still cannot come to terms with Emma's death.

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At Castle Boterel

Structure:

-the stanzas have long line lengths these emphasise how the drive is lonesome and that Hardy is now completely on his own.

-ABABB rhyme scheme is regular structure represents a natural flow and suggests that his path has brigthened being on his own.

-indentations are used on the last line of each verse to make them stand out, notice how this is sudden and abrupt so that it acts as an extended metaphor to show how Emma's death was sudden.

-circular structure encapsulated because the poem ends with 'Never again.' this suggests that it is too painful to look at past memories because Hardy is unable to acknowledge Emma's death.

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At Castle Boterel

Language:

-time associated language 'We climb the road' instead of giving an account in past tense of what happened he is talking in present tense this suggests that his memories are becoming his realtiy as he is now on his own.

-authoritative language suggests that at Cornwall he held his most deepest memories with Emma and it is difficult for him to express them as he still cannot acknowledge her death.

-nummerical language 'By thousands more' suggessting that there were numerous memories but the ones at Cornwall were the best also shows the length Hardy would travel to see Emma again this is ironic because when she was around Hardy did not look after her very well.

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At Castle Boterel

Poetic devices:

-phatic fallacy in stanza one 'drizzle bedrenches the waggonette' and 'dry March weather' these greatly contrast with each other and shows the juxtaposition of emotions because when he remembers the times they had together they were not happy but now in the present day although he is on his own he is happier.

-alliteration is used 'rude reason' give sharp sounds to establish a bitter tone as Hardy lost Emma so suddenly making it hard for him to acknowledge her death this is used to show the leitmotif of redemption because Hardy tries to do right by Emma by focusing on what was good of their past

-rhetorical question 'In that hill's story?' this suggests that there relationship was merely a fantasy and like a hill they experienced peaks and drops in their relationship.

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Afterwards

Plot:

-Hardy reflects on his life and works in this poem by writing about what he thinks people will say of him after his death. He feels that people will remember him for his love and observation of the natural world. In the first stanza Hardy sets the scene of his death by talking about nature this shows how death is a natural process of life. In stanza two he depicts his death at dusk, stanza three night, stanza four night+neightbours are watching. Finally stanza 5 shows the bells ringing at his own funeral in order to create vivid imagery.

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Afterwards

Form:

-Burlesque poem because it making the idea of death sound funny because he is imagining all the different ways he could die e.g. at dusk and night.

-tone seems relaxed and in somewhat curious as demonstrated by the rhetorical questions.

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Afterwards

Structure:

-each stanza is made up of one sentence whereby the the active verb appears near to the end of the sentence this shows how Hardy is imagining the end.

-uses lots of caesura this shows how Hardy is deliberately trying to make the text of his poem fit into a specific structure.

-ends the poem with a question this is the same ending used in the first stanza this suggests that the poem has a circular structure. This conception implies that death is inevitable and Hardy is largely concerned with how people will perceive him on his death bed than anything else.

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Afterwards

Language:

-humorous language 'glad green leaves' suggest that Hardy would be happy to go and be part of nature he is was missed accordingly. Also he chooses May suggests that it would be a good thing to go in this month as this is when nature is flourishing.

-eye associated lanaguage 'like an eyelid's soundless blink' the use of eyelid creates speed and tension to the poem suggesting that Hardy like Emma was to go sunddenly because a blink is very fast.

-hyperbolical language Hardy believes that his ability to make observations was supreme and fascinating to everyone because on his death bed he implies that people will comment onit  'but used to notice such things?' .

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Afterwards

Poetic devices:
-rhetorical questions are used to help Hardy express the message of the poem as they show how he is unsure about things hence why he asks questions to accentuate the atmosphere and the questions people would be asking when he dies.

-alliteration uses a lot of w sounds such as 'wind-warped' this suggests that people will gossip, this is significant to Hardy because he likes all the attentions to be on him.

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The Haunter

Plot:

-This is a gloomy poem that suggests Emma has become a phatom ghost that has been stalking Hardy in his own home. Though Hardy does not know know it, Emma's phathom follows him in his meanderings, hearing, but is unable to respond to the remarks he addresses to her in his grief.

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The Haunter

Form:

-plaintive poem

-Emma acts as the narrator

-written in first person

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The Haunter

Structure:

-consists of four stanzas

-each consists of eight stanzas with a rhyme scheme of ABABCBCB this rhyme scheme is irregular to create a gloomy feel to the poem as 'know' 'go' 'do' 'thereto' are repeated throughout the poem systematically this suggests that Emma is haunting Hardy.

-It also creates a cricular structure suggesting that Hardy and Emma cannot be separated they will always be together.

-The lyrical trochaic metre and subtly linked rhyme scheme seem in keeping with the optimistic content of the poem,

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The Haunter

Language:

-uses lots of exclamation marks this shows Emma's authority and makes the reader emphatic towards Hardy because he appears to be subjugated by Emma, this conception is accentuated because Hardy was of a lower social standard than Emma.

-romantic language 'all that love can do' shows that Emma was always faithful to Hardy and will continue loving him hence why she is around him all the time.

-sorrowful language 'always lacking the power to call him' this suggests that Emma is unable to talk to Hardy even though she is part of the natural world she is in a different physical world. This shows that they didn't often address each other or want to speak to each other.

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The Haunter

Poetic Devices:
-alliteration at the end of the ultimate stanza 'path' 'pursuing' 'peace' has a Double Entendre because it could suggest that Emma does not forgive Hardy and therefore he should still feel guilty and aim to resolve their marriage, or alternatively it could mean that Emma is going to look out for Hardy so that he will positive outcomes in the future.

-sibilance 'Straight to his side' this suggests that Emma was always loyal and faithful to Hardy but Hardy was not because he was falling in love with Florence whilst Emma was still living.

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Your Last Drive

Plot:

-Hardy recalls what was to be Emma's last drive when she passed the graveyward where she would be buried only eight days later. Hardy could have seen no hint in Emma's face that she was about to die so suddenely. Also he declares that he will not neglect her, seems ironic because when she was living he did little to look after her.

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Your Last Drive

Form:

-rhyming couplets

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Your Last Drive

Structure:

-5 stanzas are used each consisting of six lines

-ABABCC rhyme scheme is repeated throughout the poem because since her death teh landscape has not changed at all

-elipsis is used in the third stanza to show how both Emma and Hardy had different destionations because they did drive together.

-ends with she is 'past love, praise, indifference, blame' this suggests he finally accepts the reality of the situation that Emma has gone yet her forgiveness is unobtainable.

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Your Last Drive

Language:

-reference to time is used throughout the poem 'week' 'eight days' this is used as a dramatic device to illustrate how Hardy's feelings of sorrow and depression and long-term because he is now on his own and not with Emma.

-vulnerable language 'Should you censure me' suggests that they often did not get on when Emma was living but now Hardy suspects that Emma is watchinghim to make sure that he does not do anything she does not approve of. This implies that Emma is very selfish and essentially superior to Hardy.

-satirical language 'You may miss me then.' suggesting that Hardy has gained the better part of the deal, unlike Emma Hardy is still able to live and have actions in the physical world whereas Emma is only able to look back on what she could of had and her past life.

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Your Last Drive

Poetic Devices:

-rhetorical questions are used in the ultimate stanza to show how Hardy overally is very uncertain and shaken due to Emma's death it also shows that Hardy wants Emma by her side but does not know she is a phatom.

-enjambement from stanza two to stanza three this shows that Hardy misses Emma because whatever Emma is saying is able to creates it own flow within the stanzas yet Hardy's feelings are confined to each stanza.

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Comments

claire haswell

Thank you so much very kind to share all your hard work. cheeky question have you done an analysis of rime of the ancient mariner struggling with it, thanks Claire

Rianna

sooooo helpful

T


EXCELLENT!

Yusuf S

amazing! Really appreciate you sharing this with us

CE

Have you by any chance done an analysis of The Pine Planters?? Really struggling with the nature and the couples' relationship links... Thanks Claire :)

Katie

this is amazing! thank you so much, really helpful!!! :D

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