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Under The Waterfall - Thomas Hardy

The story is of a woman remembering a picnic under a waterfall she had with a lover, We get the impression something has happened so they are no longer together (past tense throughout) FORM - Regularly ryhmed (constant) which may be a metaphor for the consistency of a waterfall. Based around 10 (4 beat, 5 beat) Experimental in terms of the shape of lines on page (resemble the shape of a waterfall, but alternatively resembling there is no pattern to this woman's memories) and the varying line length Monologue type (telling a story) "Whenever I plunge my arm like this" taking us straight into the woman's imagination "like this" portraying a demonstration. STRUCTURE - No set structure (trickles of a waterfall) Ryhming pairs = bond between the lovers, beginning to end! Fast pace mid way through the first two stanza's resembling her excitment/eagerness "Hence the only prime" VOICE - We only hear the woman's voice, retrospectively. SETTING - Special place, magical... whatever happens outside, you forget: "In stirs of kingdoms, in wars and peaces.." Everything else is irrelevant when you're there. LANGUAGE- "There the glass still is" refers back to the cahlice as a metaphor of their love in her mind and their memories! No matter what has occured after, apart of them is still there. However it may be her romantiscising the events, an idillic scene she keeps playing over in her head, and we won't ever know if the chalice still remains. (Perfect moment frozen in time, and presumable always there?) Keeps getting brought back into the memory "If I thrust my arm below" indicating she often does this. "That chalice of ours" intimate secretive place. "No lip has touched it since his and mine" showing again intimacy and how she keeps relating it back to that memory (it is of her greatest importance)

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The Convergence of the Twain - Thomas Hardy

This poem is about the loss of the Titanic and begins in the present tense then flicks back to the ship, accentuating how materialism was what damned the ship and having a tone of inevitabilty. (Maybe this is Hard'ys few on the tragedy).FORM- two little lines (TRI METER) may resemble the Titanic and the Ice burg, and the big line which follows (HEXAMETER), the consquence. Generally regular form, aaa ryhme scheme, should be lyrical but the third line of the stanze makes it complex! (begins lyrical as if though a chance of hope, and finishes each stanze with the long realisation/inevitablity) STRUCTURE- Looks slightly like waves. Beginbs in the present tense to set the solemn scene and ends in the past when the disaster about to occur - inevitability!!! (Told Backwards) VOICE - We hear a voice in third person (presumably Hardy's, trying to voice his opinion on the tragedy) what really matters? IRONY- "All their sparkles bleared and black and blind" Jewels don't matter anymore. "Blind" showing a twist of what people obsessed in jewels can become. ENJAMBENMENT- STANZA 7: "Prepared for a sinister mate, for her - so gaily great - A shape of Ice, for the time far and dissociate" Inevitability begins, fate and the natural world have the power.. Hardy's interpretation of man (vein) and how nature wins. "What is this vaingloriousness down here?" < irony. "Shadowy silence" sibilance to represent the solemn situation it now is. CONTRAST- Mirros vs "The sea worm crawls". The ending sums up how human life deteriorated and destroyed and the lack of importance of what is real.. "and consummation comes"

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Neutral Tones - Thomas Hardy

Not an Emma Poem. This poem is about a man refelcting on the time with someone (wasted) and involves alot of pathetic fallacy. It is about a relationship he regrets. LANGUAGE - the use of pathetic fallacy - the poem takes place on a 'winter day', and uses drab, dull colours like white and grey to illustrate the sombre mood. Similie and metaphor are used effectively in stanza 3 -Descriptions of the characters facial expressions as 'dead', 'bitter' , and compared to 'an ominous bird a-wing' create a poignant juxtaposition of the implied love the couple once had with the indifference indicated by the title 'Neutral Tones'. 'eyes that rove' it was her fault - she didn't want to be with him. "And the sun was white, as though chidden of God,"This is indicative of the modernist approach to light as being too harsh and not a positive factor. Chidden means scolded, rebuked, or even blamed. God is not looking favorably upon these people. FORM-ABAB ryhme scheme. unimaginative, showing the unfaithfulness and dullness (to link to the relationship) WASTED TIME! (tedious riddles of years ago)STRUCTURE- note the use of 1st person that gives the poem a narrative, personal feel) appears to be recounting the lesson he has learned, namely that love is fleeting and inevitably ends in negative feeling, whether pain, anger, sorrow, or anything else.TONE dull/boring/nuetral/bleak/hopeless/desolate - Mal nourished grass links to the mal nourished relationship. STARTS IN PAST TENSE / ENDS IN PRESENT TENSE he is in a different place to what he was when he was with her, glad? Love is pointless and he has learnt from it. "Shaped" may indicate he has changed for the better. Ends with "grayish leaves" circular and he is not progressing? "WE" 1st person pronoun to involve both of them in the past, although it does not link to the descriptions of them together, "some words played between us to and fro" they were very much apart!!!!

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At Castle Boterel - Thomas Hardy

This poem is about Hardy looking back on a hill side (presumably for the last time) at him and his deceased wife Emma and the time they spend there, "A time of such quality", which he compares it to the "Primeval Rocks" showing how nature endures all. (Sense of past and timelessness)FORM- ABABB ryhme scheme (very formed) indicating the familiarness of how he looks back in nostalgia. four longer lines and one short line in each stanza. This is a cinquain, meaning there is an ABABB rhyme pattern. < the shorter line may resemble the realism he keeps feeling, and how she has gone. STRUCTURE- First stanza is set in the present tense and the VOICE we here is 1st person narrative and told like a story (we are took into his visions of the hill). The way it remains in the past until the very end shows how he has - finally arrived back to the realsim that his wife has gone and "For the very last time" and "Never again" show how he, like the road he stands on and the sense of looking back at struggle (SLOPE) of there relationship, he has come to the end of the road. He looks back as if they were happy... were they happy (romatisced) ? SETTING- On a highway/up a hill (struggle path). The place is very special to him (unique) and the idea that it is "but was there ever.." indicates he truly beleives despite the vastness of the hill's existence and what it has seen, his and Emma's memories were the best (this could be DENIAL/HYPERBOLE!!!) Fractured chronolgy between 5/6 time gap... Hardy dopes this to show his mood contrasts of lives back then and now, and with the reference to the everlasting geography, and there end. LANGUAGE- "Sand sinking" implies his life is like an hour glass (which differs to the rocks and nature) quicksand = disaster swallowed up by time and grief. Pathetic fallacy is evident in the poem, "drizzle" solemn tone. "Dry March weather" vision of happier days.

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The Voice - Thomas Hardy

Hardy is imagianing Emma communicating with him. & the progression of Hardy seems to remian the same, as even at the end she is still "calling" him. The poem focuses on her haunting him. Imagining he can indeed hear her, Hardy implores Emma to appear to him, in the place and wearing the same clothes that he associates with their early courtship. Hardy introduces, in the third stanza, the mocking fear that all he hears is the wind and that Emma's death has marked the end of her existence - that she has been “dissolved” and will be “heard no more”.

FORM - FALLING RYTHMN, to show his mind state and things falling around him. Begins quite lively (anapestiv meter) ABAB Ryhme scheme, idea that there is hope Emma is really calling him. Less fluent rythmn in the final stanza.. (tri meter) to show possibly him faltering forward surrounded by leaves, or also to show the increase in the wind/pace! SETTING- Autumn, representing change (leaves change) things around him are uneasy and unpredictable (he knows not where Emma is, or whether it is her calling him) Idea Emma too, has changed "As I knew you then" no longer like that, although he imagianes her in the same blue gown (blue represents sad!) SIBILANCE - reflects wind, and the third stanza could also be a metaphor for his confusion. (pathetic fallacy of weather?) The way Hardy reverts back to "the woman calling" demonstrates how he is uncapable of moving on, and though he says "no more again" it is clear the image of her is haunting him, and making him uneasy. THINGS ARE UNCERTAIN (ideas of autumn and the wind) ***The story is also in second person "you" as if he is adressing her, beleiving she is still there.. very much attached***

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The Going - Thomas Hardy

It is written in the first person - here Hardy evidently speaks for himself. The poem is in the form of a monologue addressed to Emma, containing many questions. She alone can give the answers.He does look back at happy times during the poem (regret) FORM- The metre of the poem is surprisingly lively, though the rhythm breaks down in the disjointed syntax/brief sentences of the final stanza. The brief rhyming couplet in the penultimate two lines of each stanza exaggerate his defensive tone, and maybe that it is false and he is so devastated he can't bear to think about it any longer OR he's ready to move on. Stanza 6 - The rhythm has broken down which represents how he has broken down. A disjointed end, it is as if he is choking with emotion LANGUAGE - Questions.. no answers, the inevitable sense that he is just going round in circles/frustration. He asks 'Why did you give no hint that night' as a gentle accusation, as if blameful of his late wife to think that he would not care of her illness while slightly blaming himself that he had not better expressed his unconditional love for her, in her death more apparent than ever. "swan necked one" is probably the only real physical description that Hardy creates of her, and even this is extremely vague. It indicates that perhaps his memories of her are unclear or somewhat jumbled together. There is the insinuation that perhaps he is idealising the past, because of the dream-like quality of his memories. Perhaps because the descriptions of her are so vague, it is as if she is already dead to him, a ghost. This re-iterates his sense of loss.It should be taken into account that this idea of a vague memory of happiness is strongly juxtaposed with the physical landscape, which brings the idea that Nature is unending and will always be there: "red veined rocks far West". Nature is definite, whereas life and love are not. **elements of biased/slefishness** we DON'T hear Emma's real thoughts

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The Haunter - Thomas Hardy

A moving poem from the point of view of Emma. It is written in the first person, with her as the imaginary narrator. It is almost as if, in putting these words in the mouth of Emma (who, in the poem, sees Hardy as oblivious of her presence) Hardy is trying to reassure himself that she forgives him and continues to love him/ but also punishing himself for what he did when she was alive.FORM- The ryhme scheme increase in 3 and 4 which may indicate they are more connected (as in the poem) after death, and it took death to realise Hardy's love for her.There are four eight-line stanzas, in which the second, fourth, sixth and eighth lines end with the same words each time, these being “know”, “go”, “do” and “thereto” shows how Hardy may be perceiving Emma as repettitive ? Like a ghost (or he doesn't value her opinion). LANGUAGE-Modal verbs "could" When I was around he wasn't interested now he "can't", he is... irony? POSSIBILITY (from the modals.) SIBILANCE "straight to his side I go" reference to God maybe, ending the poem with "peace" and that the ghost of Emma has calmed down, reasurring himself. "Phantom" scary atmosphere linking to the afterlife, she can see him but he cannot see her. STRUCTURE- The emotion and intensity of the poem grow as it nears its end, occasioned by the combination of “all to him” with “call to him”, that is echoed in the final stanza by the linking of “O tell him” and “befell him”. The reader can feel the ghost of Emma becoming almost desperate in her frustration at not being able to break through the barrier and make direct contact with the haunted poet. "places" he wanders in search for her.. frustrating tone, she is frustrated. Emma seems forgiving "how I would like to join in his journeys" ***voice we hear is Hardy's interpretation of her, therefore he may be being slightly arrogant***

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Your Last Drive - Thomas Hardy

A run-through of what Hardy thought Emma was thinking on her last drive, and his regret of not being there.He begins to speak as if she would be still alive, and then what she would say if she knew? FORM- Fractured chronology representing he's unsure and their lives were fractured. ABABCC ryhme structure The poem is separated into two parts, Hardy re-telling the events of Emma's last drive, and then him writing as if Emma is talking, and his reply to her.The rhyme scheme goes: a,b,a,b,c,c the separate a,b,a,b seems to represents them separately, then c,c, represents them as a couple.STRUCTURE- Enjambment is rather frequent and there are a lot of commas used which suggests that he has to get his point across, and there is no real ending to what he has to say.Metaphorical drive maybe, or two journeys (from her coffin in the cemetry?) Reader is able to get into the poem. Time is confuuusing! HARDY = PRESENT EMMA = DIED he is imagianing he was with her, had he been with her. (cemetry) Gulit (the way he treated her + the way he thinks she'll think) LANGUAGE- The word 'beam' (line 6 stanza 1) suggests Holiness, and contrast the idea of someone having a 'beaming smile'. In the line before he talks about a 'haloed view' which could be insinuating that she has received a vision from God.'Flickering sheen' explains the sun going down, like it's dying or going out, by using pathetic fallacy, he is suggesting that the mood around Emma is that she is dying or going out.the use of ellipses, helps to emphasise a pause, before he goes on to talk about his regretting not being there for her last drive. "Should you censure me I shall take n heed, and even your praises no more shall need" his negativity of what he presumes she would have said. There are elements in where he presents himslef as selfless (false!)

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Afterwards - Thomas Hardy

This poem, is about the concerns of Hardy about how he will be remembered when he dies. It is how people will see him, (arragonce in it?) Makes himself seem great and atriculate and the idea of nature is evident FORM- The poem is divided into five 4-line stanzas, called quatrains. Each has an ABAB rhyme pattern. The meter is a little bit tougher: there isn't a rigidly set number of syllables per line, like you'd find in a sonnet! in some editions of the poem, there isn't even enough space to fit all the words in each line, so they spill over It's as though the speaker wants to stretch out each line  – and for a poem about the passage of time and the inevitability of death, it fits. The lines that are in quotation marks are hardly in verse at all - read like dialogue?  STRUCTURE- Each of the stanzas takes place during a different season. poet can't decide what he'll end up dying in, so imagines all the possibilities. 1st stanza, he imagines dying during spring; Strangely, winter isn't the bad guy here – in most poems about death, you'd expect winter, or at least autumn, to play a big role in setting the mood .Line 2: The poet describes the month of May as though it were a bird "flapping" its "wings." This is kind of like personification, only the poet is giving the month of May the attributes of a bird, rather than of a person. We'll call it "birdification."Line 14: He personifies winter when he says that it "sees" the starry skies. LANGUAGE - "one may" displaying uncertainty. Line 2: The alliteration of "May month" and "glad green" draws attention to the natural images of spring in this stanza, creating almost a skipping rhythm in this line. The simile at the end of the line compares the "green leaves" to birds' "wings."Line 19: This is probably the most hopeful line in the poem, with the words "rise again" and "new bell" suggesting the possibility of life after death and renewal.

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The Darkling Thrush - Thomas Hardy

Plot summary = New years day/eve a man has a negative attitude towards the new year at the beginning, then he hears this through song, things are looking up? Although even this does not change his mind. "It seems this thrush knows something I don't" he feels that there is nothing to live for.  In "The Darkling Thrush" Hardy's bringing out all of the old favorites: the seasons, the gods, and even the elements all make cameo appearances. Here's the thing, though: like everything else in "The Darkling Thrush," all of the classical allusions in this poem are coupled with images of death and decay. One year to the next, duality that not only the new year but new century!  FORM-  It's divided into four nice, neat stanzas, each of which has eight nice, neat lines. ABABCDCD repeat repeat.  the rhyme scheme introduces a bit of tension by clashing with the mood of the poem itself. In fact, we think we will. See, the speaker is intent on showing us all of the ways that the world is ending. Right this very second. Now! But the poem itself is strictly regular.LANGUAGE -  A "coppice" is basically a big area of scrub brush. Suggesting that the coppice is gated and contained starts us off by thinking that maybe humans have been screwing up nature for a while now.  simile. The vines become "like" a broken stringed instrument."The wind his death lament" personifying this and making it negative and potentially threatening. winter stands as pathetic fallacy! Thrush = supposed to represent new beginnings and it may have seemed that way until the ambiguity at the end. (left hanging speaker never sure) 3rd stanza lifted tone by description of the thrush.  STRUCTURE - first person, although there are elements of happier feelings, abnd the postivity the thrush' song brings, the narrator still remians depressed! So the first two verses are VERY DESOLATE PESSIMISTIC, and he's really seriously loosing hope, then the flush comes in "once a voice arose" "soul/joyegstatic/full-hearted" Hardy still compares the thrush's happiness with his gaunt and frail look. NATURE AND BLEAKNESS compared to HAPPY HOPEFUL THRUSH.

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Cousin Kate - Christina Rossetti

Plot summary = Cousin Kate is the story of a woman who is jilted by her lover in favour of her cousin, and it is about the woman rertelling the story, but also ends with her pride (juxta posing everything else in her life) MEN are portrayed as animal like and bad and it covers betrayal and loyalty.

FORM- ballad octave. Indentation during stanza's (displaying how the male and female characters don't fit together (fallen women) LONG STANZA'S why?

Structure- Retrospective - showing her nostalgia for her "pure days" speed of the plot - mirrors fickleness of characters. Contrast hardened to love.

Langauge - "Shameless shameful life" internal ryhme, emotion? Animal like/predator >> pbjectifying women (power) "he chose you" "lured" - danger *ending irony - she feels she has won, realisation of what is more important.

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At an Inn - Thomas Hardy

Plot- This is a poem using an involved narrator as the narrator states "we were left alone". Furthermore,the poem is a narrative form about two people "At an Inn" for "catering". The workers "smile" and saw them " more than freinds-": however, the hyphen sturctually creates a sense of divide, suggesting they are not. FORM-Stanzas 1-4 form a flashback to the scene at the inn; Stanza 5, from line 35, brings the poem to the narrative present. Ironic juxtaposition is created between stanzas 1-2 and 3-4 (because as soon as they are left alone, they have nothing to say to one another) The presentation of the lovers ‘as strangers’ in line 1 implies a happier past preceding the narrative. STRUCTURE - The sequence of the poem is established through the order of the stanzas. The stanzas themselves are arranged into 8 lines each; their regularity could suggest the tedium of the relationship. However, we ‘hear’ each stanza as two heroic couplets (iambic pentameter/rhyming couplets) elevates the failed relationship to tragic status.VOICE-The narrator – as in a dramatic monologue, we are offered a single perspective and required to read between the lines. Reported speech form inkeepers like 15-16 (reinforcing irony of the real and presumed situation of the guests. and foreshadowed by narrators prediction in stanza1) LANGUAGE- Throughout the poem Hardy is reflective, of his and Florence's relationship and specifically other peoples interpritaions of their relationship. At the beginning of the poem the mood is more playful (siblence and imagery illitrated this) whilst nearer the end of the poem Hardy is more bitter and regretful about the way his and Florences relationship turned out, "we seemes what we were not". Assonance is used which emphasises Hardy's longing "why he cast on our port a bloom not ours?". In this quote Hardy is questioning fait for why it was so evil.

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