- Created by: f_grant
- Created on: 18-05-19 12:29
- Guarantor of stability and order desired by God
- 1529-1588 - added power of Head of the Church
- Primogeniture challenged by Mary - Act Concerning the Regal Power 1554
- Defenders of the royal prerogative - all acts still approved by parl
- Compromise and cooperation - Henry delegated to chief ministers, Edward and Mary more dedicated to changes in defence of the realm. Elizabeth was surrounded by key advisers
- Relatively effective govt - Act of Supremacy 1534 made monarchy more powerful
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The Privy Council
- After 1536 - led by president and governed by collective responsibility. Day-to-day govt of realm
- Drafted bill to be passed in parl and advised monarch directly (acted as Henry's chief minister after death of Cromwell)
- After 1554 - managed national finances and defence
- Edward - bypassed by Somerset but restored by Northumberland - increased council to 33, restored members to 'inner council' and created smaller committees
- Mary - PC of 20. Philip established council of most trusted advisers. Returned England to influence of Rome
- Elizabeth - advisery role with fewer members, led by William Cecil. Met everyday by 1590s. Added prosecution of heresy. Supervised poor laws, enforced reformation and fixed prices and wages.
- Though PC could advise monarch, this could be ignored.
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- New taxes (Wolsey's subsidy) and retrenchment by Acts of Resumption.
- New Courts - Court of Augmentations 1536 and Court of First Fruits and Tenths 1540
- 1542-1551 raised 1.27 mil from debasing coinage
- Country faced bankruptcy on death
- Different offices established. Court of Augmentations absorbed Court of General Surveyors 1547
- All financial bodies became part of the Exchequer. Increased income and decreased expenditure: avoidance of war and creation of Surveyor General of the customs and work of the Lord Treasurer.
- Rebased coinage late 1550s.
- Increase in ordinary sources of income by 50% but didn't exploit all sources.
- English crown solvent
- Left debt of £350,000 on death
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The Royal Court and Household
- Court key in distribution of patronage - more signif than passing of parliamentary statutes
- Privy chamber - intimate contact with monarch, increasingly political
- Factions - fought for control over monarch
- Female monarchs reduced political imp of chamber. Elizabeth shifted political work outside of chambers to Cecil.
- Emergence of favourites under Elizabeth
- Court essential in creating and maintaining cult of the Virgin queen - 'golden age'
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The Legal System
- The Court of King's Bench - Subject and monarch
- The Court of Common Pleas - Subject and subject
- The Court of Star Chamber (members of PC) - used under Wolsey. 12-120 cases. Tried to combat enclosures
- The Court of Requests - access to justice for poor under Wolsey
- Cromwell - harmonised system, regional differences abolished. Canon law fell under control of crown after Act of Supremacy.
- Elizabeth - Exchequer given greater role - from 1585 became an appeal court. Increase in statutes.
- Edward - repealed all Henry's catholic and heresy laws
- Mary- removed Edward's laws and attempted to rewrite laws of Henry
- Elizabeth - repealed Mary's heresy laws and restored the supremacy
- By 1558 the legal power of the crown increased everywhere but Ireland
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