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The establishment of a Hanoverian Dynasty 17141721
The ascension of William of orange to the English throne for England into a war with France. In
began in 1688 and played an important part in establishing England a powerhouse, capable of
defending itself with its military power.
The end of the 9 year war was marked with the treaty of Ryswick. In this William received
recognition from Louis xiv of France. This was in contravention of the divine right of rule notion so
this recognition was later revoked and he acknowledged James's son as the rightful her.
With the outbreak of the Spanish succession in 1702, the Whig argument that France could only
be defeated in a land campaign seemed valid. The war was initially very popular, partly because of
the military victories of the Duke of Marlborough. But, disillusionment soon set in. taxation got
higher, there was a bad harvest and the Tories gained a lot of support for their opposition to it,
they argues it was a ploy by the moneyed merchants and financiers to enrich themselves at the
expense of the landowners who were paying the taxes.. Nevertheless, the Tories were crushed in
the 171013 elections. Before 1705 the Tories had a natural majority, they would only lose if their
commitment to protestant succession was doubted, which it was after an unsuccessful 1708
francojacobite rising.
In 1714 tory ministers close to Queen Anne were accused of holding Jacobite sympathies due to
their staunch opposition to the Hanoverians. There was no substance to these claims as while
there was a Jacobite wing within the Tory party, most favoured Hanoverian succession.
Harley was a stanch Hanoverian, he negotiated the conditions of the Hanoverian succession after
the death of Queen Anne. As the elector of Hanover the future king George I supported the French
was policy of the Whigs. As Bolingbroke and Harley were quarrelling with Hanover, it was wrongly
assumed they were planning a Jacobite uprising, aiming to put the `pretender' on the throne with
the tacit support of the dying Stuart queen. Although the tory leaders had contact with the
Jacobite court, as a form of political insurance, there was no way James could be restored to the
throne as long as he was a catholic which James reiterated his commitment to in 1714.
The treaty of Utrecht 1713
This was very controversial as the Tories had made a separate peace with France without
consulting Britain's allies on the basis. It was made on the basis Britain was bearing too much of
the expenses of the war, and the landed interests were increasingly jeopardized by the moneyed
Bolingbroke was a real tory who embodied the tory prejudice he felt the landed were the
backbone of the country and this was being undermined by the financiers and foreign merchants.
He was secretary of war and secretary of state between the years 17041710 so he had to work
with the Whigs but always Tory. He wrote a book alongside Swift which criticised the Whigs for
prolonging such a costly war.
By the treaty Britain had gained much politically and territorially. Louis officially renounce his
support for the pretender who left France and left for the Duchy of Lorraine. France recognised
protestant succession and dismantled the temporary fortifications at Dunkirk and ceded many
FrenchAmerican territories like St Kitts. Despite the defeat though France's main territory was left
largely intact. Spain also ceded Gibraltar and gave Britain slave trading rights in South America.
William and May were childless on Mary's death in 1694, this meant after Anne's death, the
childless last of the Stuart line there would be another crisis of succession because the pretender

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Other than him Harley and William of Orange negotiated the conditions
of succession and it was likely to pass to the nearest protestant relative which was Sophia,
electress of Hanover. Sophia too great interest in her kingdom, to the chagrin of Queen Anne but
she died in 1714 before Anne meaning the crown passed to her son George Louis when Anne died.
This was problematic as there was now a discontinuity in the line of succession.…read more

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Bolingbroke did not exactly go out of his way to disprove these allegations and instead became
the pretender's secretary of state in July 1715. As a result he lost his titles and estates via the act
of attainder. He advised the Pretender to place himself at the head of the Tories and to protect
the Church of England but the Pretender ignored this advice, and instead he blamed Bolingbroke
for the failure of the 1715 rebellion. He was dismissed from his service in March 1716.…read more

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So with troops preoccupied in the south, when a large Jacobite rebellion broke out in Scotland,
people were kept quiet in the south due to their continued occupation throughout the rebellion.
The cause of the rebellion was the collapse of the tory party as an effective beacon of political
opposition and the regional discontents which led to this sympathy for the Jacobite's.…read more

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Stanhope's ministry were a little ahead of
their time.
Stanhope's foreign policy and the search for European stability
Despite their secure position, disagreements within the Whig party were soon apparent. The main
point was disagreement regarding the degree of influence the house of Hanover ought to have on
British foreign policy. This soon split the Whigs.
The traditional Whig plan was to restore the old system of Dutch alliance with Austria against the
French.…read more

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The next day
Townshend was sacked and Walpole resigned as chancellor.
War of the quadruple alliance
Getting Austria to agree with the aims of the triple alliance failed as the emperor refused to
recognise Phillip V as king of Spain. The triple alliance aimed to thwart Phillip's ambitions in both
France and Italy. With the Spanish invasion of Sicily and Sardinia in 1718 the emperor agree to join
the alliance.…read more

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Anne. This was disruptive to the government and eventually did as planned in returning Walpole
and Townshend to power.
The peerage bill of 1719 highlighted the political partisanship of Stanhope's ministry in the
extreme. The purpose of the bill was to prevent any addition to the number of lords once George I
had introduced 6 new peers and altered to allow 25 hereditary Scottish peers. Hereafter the
prerogative of the monarch would be limited to filling the vacancies created by peerages going
extinct.…read more

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South sea bubble
Harley established the south sea company; a tory finance corporation in 1711in order to compete
with the Whig Bank of England and the east India Company. The bank of England was created in
1694 and provided the British government with a source of secure loans and created a sense of
financial security, unparralled in Europe. The south sea company was used to secure £9 million in
unsecured national debt debt not secured by the proceeds of taxation.…read more

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April 1722, consolidating Walpole's power.
Another possible leader ­ Carteret, who had sided with Stanhope and Sunderland was left isolated
with no personal following, electoral or political influence.
Walpole became chancellor in April 1721. It is debated how much Britain's recovery from the
bubble crisis can be attributed to Walpole's financial expertise . A previous generation of
historians saw Walpole as standing gallantly aloof from the crazed scheme and stepping in to
correct British national finances but this is incorrect.…read more

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Ireland was actually fairly docile throughout this century but this peace was jeopardised by the
following incident. The issue concerned the currency and patents granted to William Wood to
Wolverhampton on july 12th 1722, to manufacture copper coins for which there was a shortage in
Ireland. Swift, in his Drapier's Letters (1724) attacked the patent as an attempt to foist a debased
coinage on Ireland, and raised the whole question of the AngloIrish relationship, denying that
Ireland was dependent on England.…read more


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