The teleological argument
The Teleological argument ('Telos'=design)
- Cause + effect
- Inductive argument-inference to the best explanation
- Order in the universe
- Argument for or from existence of order in the universe as the foundation
Hume: But there's like cancer and stuff!
Chaos: The world is the product of chaos (X purpose X direction)
- Paley's watch
- Intelligence-Fine tuning
- ALL indications of design are evident in the universe, the whole universe operates with the same design features and the universe is infinite in space, time, etc.
- The Eye
- Paley's watch
Hume: It is but a weak analogy, comparing the universe to a machine with a small number of similarities and more differences.
So, is it weak or strong?
- What is it's purpose?
- Empirical similarity is weak.
- Disorder in the world challenges harmonious aspects.
- We can't stand outside the universe to judge whether it is harmonious.
- Anthropomorphic difficulties: incompatible with other attributes of God.
The argument for cause and effect
If the universe is the effect, there must be a cause.
- Conclusions about causes require prior experience-empirical inquiry.
Causes are often proportional to effect.
- Hume: We have no experience of the creation of the universe. We need empirical knowledge to not be making mere guesses.
The problem is trying to reach backwards from a unique event to determine the cause.
- There are many planets, experiments could have been 'bungled'?
- Is there a team of designers?
- Or an unknown intelligence? 'The Giant Spider'
- 'Giant vegetable argument'
There is, at the end of the day, sufficient doubt to discount the argument as proof and any other possibilities are just as likely.
F.R. Tennant (1866-1957)
Accepted and included the theory of evolution, which has a purpose and is created and guided by an intelligent God. Progress is not random but makes progress.