AS-Level, Philosophy, Knowledge of the External World, Revision Booklet

I'm using these notes for my up-coming exam (urgggh...) and I thought that since I've wrote them out so nicely, I'd share them with everyone else who's struggling through the woes of Philosophy at A-Level.

This booklet is only Knowledge of the External World which is covered in the SECOND Philosophy Paper.

And just so you know, I don't have the best (nor worst) set of notes for this topic so if you spot anything wrong I'd be quite grateful of you to point it out and such. I'd hate to give you the wrong information and such...

Kasey

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  • Created by: Kathryn.C
  • Created on: 23-04-11 18:19

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World




Knowledge of the External World Revision Booklet




1

Page 2

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World



CONTENTS




Common Sense Realism 3 ­ 4


Philosophical Direct Realism 5


Representative Realism 6 ­ 8


Idealism 9 ­ 12


Phenomenalism 13 ­ 15







2

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World



COMMONSENSE REALISM

Definition:
The
theor
y t
hat
we
have
dir
ect
,
unmedi
ated
access
to
the
ext
ernal
wor
ld.

Key Philosophers:
G.E.
Moor
e(
20t
h
Cent
uryE
ngl
ishP
hi
losopher
)
andT
homasR
ei
d(
18t…

Page 4

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World


Thef
act
that
wec
anf
unct
ioni
nt
hew
or
ld,
uset
hema
t
eri
alsa
t
our
di
sposal
,
bui
ldh
omes,
her
d
c
a t
tl
ee
t
c.
S uggest
st
hat
wee
xper
iencet
hew…

Page 5

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World



PHILOSOPHICAL DIRECT REALISM
Definition:
A t
heor
yd
evel
opedo
uto
fC
S R,
that
at
tempt
st
os
ol
ves
omeo
f
thep
r
obl
emso
f
CSR
especi
all
y t
he
"Argument
f
rom
Il
lusi
on"
.…

Page 6

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World



REPRESENTATIVE REALISM

Definition:
The
Bel
ief
t
hat
we
do
not
have
dir
ect
,
unmi
ti
gat
ed
(unmedi
ated)
access
to
the
w or
ld


Key Philosophers:
John
Locke
and
Ber
tr
and
R ussel
l

"The mind represents…

Page 7

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World


5. Al
so
expl
ains
hal
luci
nati
ons
t
hese
occur
w hen
sensedat
a i
s exper
ienced
but
t
her
e i
s no
cor
respondi
ng
obj
ect


Di
ff
e r
e nces
between Sense Data…

Page 8

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World




John Locke:
Joh nw a saB
r i
ti
shE
mp iri
ci
st
(1632­1
7 0 4 ) andc
o nsi
d ereds e nse da t
a(
u sedt e rm `i
de as '
)
tob es epa…

Page 9

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World



IDEALISM

Definition:
The
theor
y t
hat
t
he
obj
ect
of
ext
ernal
per
cept
ion,
i
n i
tsel
f
or
as
per
cei
ved,
consi
sts
of
i
d eas.


Key Philosopher:
G eor
geB
er
kel
ey.…

Page 10

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AS Philosophy Topic One: Knowledge of the External World





Arguments of Idealism against Representative Realism:
1. Locke is an incoherent Empiricist ­ the concept of `matter' is meaningless
O neo f t
h eF
unda me nt
al
Principles
of
E mpir
ici
smi
s that
all co ncept
s…

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