Many centres of power in a democracy.
e.g. partiesm, pressure groups, communtiy forums, business groups, environmental groups, thinktanks, NMSs.
State listens, hears, acts as arbiter, modirater, umpire, honest broker.
By 'hearing' openly + non-disciplinary manne it maintains through its decision a 'democratic equiblibrium' where groups are recievers of benefit in rotation with an even distribution of decisions in favour / against their requests.
Optimistic theory. State's actions determined by democratic will.
MARXIST - INSTRUMENTAL
The state is a direct instrument, controlled + used to further the ruling class interests. Thus owners of production interests are protected.
The functionaries who carry out the tasks of the state are recruited from the narrow social base dominanted by the Bourgesie.
MARXIST - STRUCTURAL
State is conditioned by capitaliism.
Capitalist state best serves the interests of the capitalist class, only when members of this class don't direcly participte in the state apparatus.
State autonomy - the state can be relatively autonomous - it doesn't always represent the Bourgeosie short term.
To protect the Bourgeosie long term, a relatively autonomous state can make concessions to masses to dismiss national myths between conflicted sections of the r/c not always having common positions.
MARXIST - HEGEMONY
State was the entire complex of practiced and theoretical actions, with which the r/c not only justifies + maintains it's dominance, but maintains to maintain active consent.
If r/c maintained + gained approval of consent - this was hegemony. It was thought this was gained through persuading the population to accept political and moral values of r/c.
JESSOP 2002 - THE WORKFARE STATE
Rejects Miliband and Poulantzas's claims but accepts capitalism has powerful effects on state activities and policies.
The state is not an agency of capitalism.
Operational autonomy = can operate in ways that can cause damage to capitalist interests.
Generally operates to make sure capitalism behaves responsibility + general good for society.
Since the 1980s, the welfare state has been replaced with the workfare state.
Main aim is to encourage members of society to take more individual responsibility for their welfare and future.
GIDDENS 1994 - THE STATE IN LATE MODERNITY
The products of modern society have resulted in citizens of modern states becoming more self-conscious.
More likley to be 'socially refelxive' = aware of risks and limitations of living in global society.
We need to adopt a 'new politics':
- Life Politics = politics of lifestyle which increase awareness of impact on environment etc.
- Generative Politics = build institutions that nuture personal freedom and individual responsibility.
- Dialogic democracy = encourage 'active trust', tolerance + diversity - encourage NSMs.
CRITICAL OF GIDDENS
Giddens overstates individualism rather than people thinking as membes of social classes. He neglects the structural reasons for inequality and political problems.
Giddens suggests tthe state should stay out of most aspects of its citizens lives. Faulks argues the state is essential as if defends citizens from powerful and exploitative social and economic influences.
HELD 2000 AND SKLAIR 2004 THE STATE + GLOBALISATIO
4 REASONS THAT GLOBALISATION THREATENS THE EXISTENCE OF THE STATE:
States find it almost impossible to control the international flow of money.
Transnational economic behaviour can severly disrupt economic policy by shifting investment and therefore employment between countries. Modern states = puppets of global corporations.
The global economy means that recession in one part of the world can undermine the economy in another part.
Global communications and internet have made it hard for states to regulate the flow of information across borders.
THE SHRINKING STATE
GIDDENS 1994 says global communications makes people socially reflexive or risk aware. This becomes less voting/electoral support for the state.
BECK 1992 supports Giddens and says he state has failed to support citizens.
Transnational economic behaviour + TNCs ignore national g'ments or pay lip service only policies.They have more economic power than many small states.
Global money flows - speculation against currencies - investment flows e.g. Greece.
Rise of power blocs and global institutions e.g. EU
NEW RIGHT IDEOLOGY
Tory g'ments sold off state industries and council houses. Introduced private firms into servicing the state. Cut public sector jobs = state shrunk.