Agencies of development: States

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  • Created by: hannah8
  • Created on: 02-05-14 15:02
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  • Agencies of development: States
    • Summary
      • Not the same as governments
        • Governments are in temporary control of some/most aspects of the state
        • Civil service, military, police, judicial/legal systems are also part of the state
          • Have greater continuity
        • 3 ways in which the state can affect development
          • 1) State itself can lead development, setting it as a goal it actively pursues
            • 2) State can limits its role to guiding/facilitating capitalist development
              • By maintaining order, providing infrastructure and making it possible for the market to work
              • 3) State can be an obstacle to development
                • E.g. May be corrupt, with poltiicians enriching themselves from aid/resources
    • Neo-Liberals
      • Favour the state being as small as possible
        • States should have fading role
        • TNCs should have a growing role
      • States in the developing world have been too big
        • Oversized bureaucracies/too much interference in the market
      • However, they accept that states have the responsibility to create/maintain a stable and secure social situation
        • Allows the free market to operate
          • Countries in which states cannot do this (e.g. Somalia) are 'failed states'
    • Marxistst/Dependency theorists
      • Opposed to capitalism
        • Favour development being led by the state
          • Provided it represents the people
      • In most countries, however, state is controlled by bourgeoisie
        • Therefore acts:
          • 1) In the interest of the Northern elites
          • 2) Against the interests of the majority of the population
        • Transformation of the state via revolution is needed
    • State-led development
      • Before 1970s: State had to play a leading role in development
        • States ran industries, organised agriculture and bought products for marketing
          • They were large and employed many people
        • They played a key role in the fewa examples of successful industrialisation and economic growth
          • E.g. rise of Japan and the Asian 'tigers
      • Adrian Leftwich
        • The common factor in the development success of the past 50 years has been the 'development state'
        • Development state
          • In which the state focuses on development goals and works closely with the private sector
          • These states tend to be authoritarian, with weak or absent opposition
            • This is now less acceptable, as aid and debt relief often depend on countries being democratic
    • States blocking development
      • In other cases, the state did not help development
        • Large bureaucracies/corruption may actually have helped prevent development
          • Argument often used by neo-liberals
          • Many of these cases were in Africa
            • African states were created by colonialism, when the European powers fixed borders that did not reflect social/ethnic divisions among African people
            • Many African states have always been weak
              • Sometimes only held together by international insistence that the borders couldn't be changed in case greater instability was caused
                • African states have struggled to build a sense of national identity
                  • Though some achieved this through wars to free themselves of colonial rule/through promotion by governments


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