The Rise of the Nazis Party

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The Roots of the Nazis Party

Adolf Hitler was the Nazi Leader.

  • Born in Austria in 1889 & lived in Germany 1912 onwards
  • Brave soldier on Western front won the iron cross twice
  • Couldn't accept defeat
  • In 1919 he joined the German Workers Party- led by Anton Drexler
  • 1920- name changed to Nation Socialist German Workers Party (Nazis)
  • Hitler took over leadership- charasmatic speaker
  • The party set up SA (armed group)
  • Protected the Nazis leaders
  • Harassed opponents
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The Roots of the Nazis Party

Hitler tried to ovetthrow the Government in the Munich Putsch.

  • 1923- going bad for the government & it seemed weak
  • Hitler planned to overthrow Weimar Government- starting by taking control of Government in Bavaria
  • Hitler's soldiers occupied beer hall in the Bavarian city of Munich- local government leaders were meeting
  • Announced revolution had begun
  • Next day- marched into Munich with SA
  • Revolt collapsed- police open fired

Hitler the book 'Mein Kampf' in prison.

  • Imprisioned for role in Munich Putsch
  • Wrote a book describing his beliefs & ambitions
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Beliefs and Ambitions

  • Believed the Aryans were a Master Race 
  • Would join Austria and Germany (Anschluss)
  • Would reverse Treaty of Versailles
  • Create a greater Germany
  • Germans had a right to Lebensraum (more space to live)
  • Believed other races were inferior
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The Roots of the Nazis Party

After the Munich Putsch Hitler changed tactics.

  • Nazis party was banned after Putsch
  • Hitler released- re-established party with himself as supreme leader
  • 1920- German economy was begining to recover
  • Nazis support declined
  • Changed tactics- gain control through democratic system
  • Party- extended nationally 
  • Propaganda was used to promote beliefs
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The Rise of the Nazis

The Great Depression caused poverty and suffering.

  • Massive unemployment- 6 million by 1933
  • 1931- Germany's biggest bank collapsed- harder to repay reparations
  • Government kept changing- couldn't solve economic problems
  • Depression- Weimar Republic collapsed
  • Extremist groups became popular- promised strong leadership

The Nazis increased in popularity during the depression.

  • Nazis promised to make Germany great
  • Appealed to unempolyed, businessment & young people
  • Some supported their anti communist & jewish views
  • 1930- membership 300,000+
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The Rise of the Nazis

The elections of 1930 showed Nazi gain.

  • Results- 2nd
  • Vote: 1928= 800,000 1930= 6,409,000
  • Seats: 1928= 12 1930= 107
  • Share prices down 20%
  • Chancellor Henrich Bruing couldn't control Reichstag properly- too many parties
  • Rule by emergency decree

Germany had no strong Government.

  • April 1932- conditions were serious
  • Desparate for strong government
  • President Hindenburg stood for re-election & Hitler ran against
  • Hindenburg didn't win majority in first election
  • Second ballot he won 53%
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The Rise of the Nazis

Hindenburg refused to give Nazis power.

  • Couldn't find a chancellor who had support
  • Appointed inexperienced Franz von Papen
  • July 1932 election- Nazis biggest party (230 seats)- didn't have majority
  • Hitler demanded to be chancellor- refused

The Nazis lost seats in the elections.

  • Lost 34 in the November 1932 election
  • Hindenburg appointed Kurt von Schleicher as Chancellor
  • He tried to cause divisions in the Nazis party- asked Gregor Strasser (Nazis) to be vice
  • Hitler made him refuse
  • Hitler got offered Chancellor in January 1933
  • Called another election in March 1933- hoped to make Nazis stronger in Reichstag
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The Rise of the Nazis

The Nazis used dirty tricks to win in 1933.

The Nazis did well in the elections because:

  • Controlled news media
  • Opposition meetings were banned
  • SA terrorised opponents
  • Reichstag fire- blame communist & increase their opposition
  • Ruled by emergency decree- deal with it- intimidated communist voters
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Hitler comes to power

Hitler changed the law to keep control.

  • Nazis won 288 seats- still no majority
  • Hitler made communist party illegal
  • Gave him enough support to pass Enabling act- lets him govern for 4 years without parliament
  • Made all other parties illegal
  • May 1933- Trade unions were banned
  • July 1933- all other political parties were banned
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The Night of the Long Knives

  • Hitler still had opposition- rivals in Nazis party
  • Biggest threat- Ernst Rohm- controlled SA
  • 29th- 30th June 1934 Rohm & others were arrested
  • Several hundred were killed including Rohm
  • Opposition had been removed
  • Month later- death of Hindenburg
  • Hitler combined post of Chancellor & President & made him Commander-in- Chief of the army
  • He was now called Der Fuhrer
  • Begining of a dictatorship
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Hitler comes to power

Germany was now under strong leadership.

  • Germany was reorganised into a number of provinces- called Gau
  • A loyal Nazi (Gauleiter) were in charge of each
  • Among them was Reichsleiters- advised Hitler, Goebbels- propaganda, Himmler- chief of German police
  • Hitler was in absolute control
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