The principles of care


Promoting effective communication and relationship

Is needed in order to ensure quality care is provided to improve the quality of people's lives by addressing a range of needs. Through effective communication care workers can develop realtionships with individuals in their care which will assist the caring process.

Some individuals may:

*Speak different languages                  *Can have hearing loss or limited vision

*May find it difficult to speak                  *May have limited understanding

These people may have difficulty communicating with care workers; this is a barrier, which needs to be overcome. Care workers need to be aware of a variety of ways of communicating with others, to ensure that the clients receive the correct care and treatment that they require. Ways of communicating may be:

*Learning new languages   *Using an interpreter or advocate  *Lip reading   *Sign language *Makaton                             *Use of pictures                             *Written communication

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Promoting anti-discriminatory practice

Discrimination = certain individuals are treated less favourably than others because of a personal characteristic they may have. Discrimination can be direct (intended) or indirect (unaware). Unfair discrimination can occur on the basis of gender, sexuality, ethnicity, religion, social class, age and impairment/health status.

To promote anti-discriminatory practice, health and social care organisations should:

*abide by Codes of practice (a document that outlines an agreed way of working and dealing with specified situations).

*develop policies (tells care workers how they should do specific things in particular care settings) and implement them

*give staff training in promoting better care to all individuals

*have a complaints procedure so that all individuals can seek redress

*follow legislation which supports anti-discriminatory practice

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Maintaining confidentiality of information

Confidentiality = about keeping information private when is should be kept private. Includes written records, computer records and verbal information. A health and social care worker will know a great deal about the person they are caring for. Essential that informtion is kept confidential and not passed on without the individuals permission. The death of an individual does not give a carer the right to break confidentiality. Confidentiality can be broken in certain circumstances: if the individual or public is at risk.

Basic principles:

Involve: let the people who use your service know what information you wish to record.                                       Inform: make sure that the people who use your service understand their rights and how to exercise them. Respect: some people may wish to share confidential information with you and ask you not to share it.                 Get it right: make sure all information is accurate, complete and up-to-date.                                                     Secure: store and send information securely in order to ensure that it cannot go into the wrong hands.               Need to know: ony record information relevant to caring for the people who use your service.                           Share with care: share personal information outside your service only with the person's knowledge and consent.                                                                                                                                                     *Obligations: all staff dealing with personal information should be aware of the issues surrounding confidentiality and be trained to deal with them in an appropriate manner.

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Promting individuals rights to dignity, independen

Righs = can be covered by laws(the right to drive a care at 18, the right to get married), can also be seen as natural or universal rights (the right to wotk, the right to have children).

The right to dignity: meaning that individuals have a right to preserve their privacy. (In a residential home an individual should be bathed with the bathroom door closed).                                                                                 right to choice: meaning individuals should be included in decision making regarding their care, giving clients the information needed to make choices. (Giving clients a food menu at mealtimes).                                                                                                                                                                    The right to independence: meaning individuals should be allowed and encouraged to do as much for themselves as possible, if the care staff do everything for them they may feel useless and not try to do things for themselves and become dependent of staff. (Ask a client if they can do something for themselves, let them try first).                                                                                                                                                                       right to empowerment: meaning individuals should be provided with the necessary support to be able to do things for themselves, this could be: provision of aids and adaptations. (Explain rules for benefits to someone to get money if they can't work).                                                                                                                                 The right to safety: care workers must do everything possible to protect individuals from harm. (Making sure that all equipment they use has been checked and/or sterilized).

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Acknowledging individuals personal beliefs

Means that care worker should try to communicate that they accept the person for who they are and what they believe in. Care workers may not always share the beliefs and lifestyle of people they care for but should still show that they accept individuals' individuality.

A vegetarian should be offered an alternative to meat at all times.

A smoker should be allowed to go outside to smoke.

Main bases of discrimination:

*culture         *social class     *health status

*age              *gender            *family status

*disability       *sexuality         *cognitive ability

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Protecting individuals from abuse

Abuse = deliberate and intended to harm another person or a way of treating them which may cause them harm.                                                                                                  

Abuse can be:                                                                                                                 *Physical  *Sexual  *Psychological  *Financial  *Neglect

Those likely at risk from abuse: children, individuals with mental health problems, learning disabilities, physical disabilities and older individuals. Because they are more vulnerable, less powerful and easily influenced.

Individuals can be protected from abuse by:                                                                                                                                        *raising awareness of possible problems  

*recording signs of possible abuse

*reporting incidents to the right organisation

*training staff so they are aware of the procedures to follow.

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Providing individualised care

Care workers often provide care for people who have similar problems and needs. However, rather than treating everyone the same they should provide care that meets each person's individual needs. To do this each individual needs to be assessed to find out their particular needs, taking into account personal beliefs and preferences.

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