The Three Concerns for the Winners
1. Millions of people were dead or injured; countries like Belgium and France were devastated; the main powers had spent too much money on the War.
2. Many people wanted Germany to take all the blame, especially in Britain and in France most of all- Germany wasn't allowed to take part in the talks but most Germans didn't accept this.
3. Everyone wanted to make sure a war like this wouldn't happen again, but they couldn't agree on how this could be done- the system of Alliances had obviously failed.
The 'Big Three'- France, Britain and the USA
- George Clemenceau- French P.M.
- David Lloyd George-British P.M.
- Woodrow Wilson- US President.
1. All three countries had ideas about the Peace- and they often disagreed.
2. So a compromise was reached- only some of their ideas became part of the settlement.
3. The key fact to remember is that the French had suffered badly, and the British had also suffered- this meant they both wanted to punish the Germans. People in the USA didn't suffer in the same way- they were more detached and wanted to stay impartial.
Wilson's Fourteen Points
1. President Wilson had come up with the Fourteen Points in January 1918 when the Germans were asking for a truce.
2. Germany had rejected them but when the fighting ended in November they hoped that the peace settlement would be based on them.
3. The Allies refused because the Germans had rejected them before.
4. But the Fourteen Points were an important part of the peace process- especially point 14 which called for a League of Nations to settle disputes. This was going to become very important between the two World Wars.
Wilson's Fourteen Points- January 1918
1. No secret treaties
2. Free access to the sea for all
3. Free trade between countries
4. Disarmament by all countries
5. Colonies to have a say in their own future
6. Russia to be free of German troops
7. Belgium to be independent
8. Alsace- Lorraine to go to France
Wilson's Fourteen Points- January 1918 CONTINUED
9. New frontier between Austria & Italy
10. Self- determination for people of Eastern Europe
11. Serbia to have access to sea
12. Self- determination for people of Eastern Europe
13. Poland to be independent with access to the sea
14. League of Nations to settle disputes