The psychodynamic approach
- Behaviour is influenced by interactions between the conscious and unconsious mind.
- Many of which have origins in early shildhood development.
- Freud proposed that the personality is made up of three elements; the id, ego and superego and these need to be balanced to aviod psychologicl disorders.
- No evidence for the elements of personality.
- The first to suggest how adult behaviour can be influence by early childhood experienes.
- Freud's theory of abnormality was developed in 19th century Vienna - so has a cultural aspect.
1 of 3
The behavioral approach
- Classical conditioning - uncnditional responses or reflexes. Litle Albert was conditioned to assosiate animals with fear. He became afraid of flufy objects and similar objects - stimulus generalisation.
- Operant conditioning - Learning through reinforcement. Skinner proposed that operant conditioning, was fundamental in human development.
- Social learning theory - learning by watching and copying others.
- Clasical conditioning has been proved through little Albert, to cause phobias.
- Reductionist - ignores cognitive and emotional contributions to development of psychopathology.
- Has no role for genetics.
2 of 3
The cognitive approach
- Schemata - how we see ourselves - "i am confident and self - assertive".
- Schemata develop on early lifehood experiences.
- Negative schemata - can lead to negative automatic thoughts - "i am bad at everything".
- Becks model - negative view of self, of the world and of the future.
- The idea of schemata is very vague - no evidence.
- Ignores biological factors and genetics.
- Negative thoughts can reflect an accurate view of the world.
3 of 3