Education was vital to Hitler's plans as he could indoctrinate an entire generation to become loyal soldiers and mothers. Hitler burnt all non-nazi textbooks and many teachers were sacked. He also changed the timetable to mainly German, Geography, History, Race study, sport, Domestic science and Eugenics.
- As soon as Hitler gained power in 1933, all teachers were forced to join the German teacher's league and be members of the Nazi Party.
- All Jewish teachers were sacked
- Having good, Nazi tachers was vital to ensure young were taught "correctly"
- Hitler needed both boys and girls to be healthy and fit to become good soldiers and mothers.
- Both boys and girls did several hours of PE each day
- Boys started the day with PE, and would do boxing and other combat sports
- Girls would mostly do Hiking, Athletics and Cross Country.
History and Geography
- Only German "Aryan " history was taught- old history books were replaced with Nazi ones.
- Geography centred on areas that Hitler hoped to control
Maths and Citizenship
- Maths to help girls measure ingredients and boys for practical use.
- Citizenship- both sexes were constantly taught to be good Nazis
- Girls in particular were taught racial science and Eugenics (science of breeding)
- This was to help them pick out a good racial partner and raise an Aryan child.
What people were taught in the Hitler Youth
Boys were being prepared to enter the male sphere- work, politics and the army.
- They went on Camps
- Basic military training including close combat competitions
- Hitler Youth members would get a nazi badge and a HJ knife when they passed tests
- Boys recieved political training and learn nazi ideas and songs
- Bravery tests eg. jumping from first floor windows
- Extreme fitness and cross country running training.
Girls were being prepared to enter the women's sphere- the home and family
- Advanced child development training- how to raise a child
- Sewing, Cleaning and Cooking, including competitions using leftovers (War preparations)
- Domestic "housekeeping" and Racial (choosing Aryan husband) sciences
- Camping. Hiking and Cross country running
- Political training- oaths of loyalty, singing songs
Hitler Youth Groups
The Hitler Youth was founded in 1926 after Hitler came out of prison and started to reorganise the party. Membership was low until 1933 when Hitler became chancellor and when he was Fuhrer, membership tripled to 6 million, as people were too scared not to join.
- Pimpfen (young fellows) Age 6-10
- Deutches Jungvolk (German young folk) Age 10-14
- Hitler Jungend (Hitler Youth) Age 14-18
- Jung Mädel (Young Girls) Age 10-14
- Bund Deutsche Mädchen (League of German Maidens) Age 14-18
The Hitler Youth law was passed in 1936 and stated that all youths should belong to a Hitler youth group and in 1939, it become compulsory.
There were many youth groupos in Germany who opposed the Nazi regimes and rebelled agains the regulations. The main three were:
The Eidelweiss Pirates-
The Eidelweiss pirates were teenagers who would go hiking, camping and would hang around on street corners. They wore their hair long and wore scruffy clothes to oppose the nazis. They would fight with Nai street police and Hitler Youth boys, they refused to comply with joining the Hitler Youth. Towards the end of the war, they acted against the state by stealing arms and explosives, attacking nazi figures and bombing. This resulted in the hanging of many leaders.
The 'Swing Youth'-
The Swing Youth used culture to rebel, dressing in Amercan/British clothes and host swing parties with scandalizing dancing, smoking and alcohol. Some of these leaders were also hung.
The White Rose Group-
The white rose group distributed anti-nazi leaflets which resulted in some executions.
Did this benefit the young or not?
- Become part of a group
- Go on fun trips
- Drops some unpopular school subjects eg religion
- Lots of sport
- Highly organised and vaued
- Many hated the HJ, especially the boring politics
- Nre subjects at school were confusing
- Taught to spy on parents
- HJ members used to defend Berlin in the last days of war.