The Cold War

GCSE Modern World History for Edexcel: Peace and War; International relations 1943-91

  • Created by: brishan
  • Created on: 18-04-11 14:38

How did the cold war develop? 1943-56 - Origins of

What was the Cold War?

A Cold war is a war waged against an enemy by every means short of actually fighting. The Cold War started in 1945-46 and lasted over 40yrs.

The Cold War had nearly all the features of a hot war:

  • causes and consequences
  • two sides east v. West or Usa + supporters v. Soviets + supporters
  • Two rival armed camps- NATO v. Warsaw Pact
  • The two sides competing for influence all over the world, often assisting rival sides in civil wars.

However, the two superpowers never directly faught.

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How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56 - Orgins of

What were the Cold War's main features?

Spying: To find out military developments. Even used special spy planes e.g. U2   Spy plane from America. This increased the two superpowers rivalry.

Propaganda: To create bad image of the other side and ensure public opinion supported the government.

Arms Race: Each side wanted more weapons and newer technology than other.

Space Race: They competed for success in space race e.g. first man to moon.

Loans and Aid: Competed to provide loans and aid to other contries to gain their support in the cold war.

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How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56 - Origins of

Who were the Superpowers?

Before WW2 seeveral 'Great Powers' including Britain, France, Germany, USA, Japan and Soviets Union. WW2 changed this:

  • Germany and Japan were defeated and seriously weakened.
  • France had been defeated and occupied by Germany during the war and lost its status as a great power.
  • Britain was victorious but almost bankrupt.

Two countries, however, becam even stronger and clearly far more economically and militarily powerful than rest of the world. These were the USA and Soviet Union.

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How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56 - Origins of

Rivalry before 1941

Super powers differences go back to Bolshevik or communist revolution in Russia 1917. Lenin seized control of the government and established communist regime. They believed in world revolution. At hear of rivalry there were two conflicting beliefs - communism v. capitalism. Countries such as Britain,France, and USA feared the spread of communism. They interviened in Russian Civil War, 1918-21, by supplying groups in Russia who were fighting to overthrow Lenin with arms. Communist won but were now very suspicous of the west. Differences between the rivals intensified in years after 1933 as both sides were very wary of invasion.

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How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56 - Origis of

Rivalry during WW2

The Soviet Union allied with Britain and the USA during the second world war in what became known as the Grand Alliance. Stalin was forced into this arrangement because of the German invasion of the Soviet UUnion in 1941. During the war the Grand alliance held two conferences. The first meeting of the Big Three - President Franklin Roosevelt, Prime minister Winston Churchill and Stalin - was held in Tehran, capital of Iran, In 1943. The second was in Yalta, a Soviet resort on the black sea, in 1945.

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How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56 - Origis of

Teheran Conference 1943

Roosevelt organised meeting to helpimprove relations between the Big Three. Held the first meeting in Teheran November 1943. Things decided:

  • Britain and USA agreed to open up a second front by invading France in May 1944.
  • The Soviet Union was to wage war against Japan once Germany was defeated.
  • A United Nations organisation was to be set up after the war.
  • An area of eastern Poland was added to the Soviet Union.
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How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56 - Origis of

Strains in the Grand alliance due to the Teheran Conference:

Second Front: Stalin was convinced that the British and USA were waiting until the Soviet Union had been seriously damaged by the German Invaders.

Churchill: He was suspicious of  Stalin's motives in eastern Europe. He was convinced that Soviet troops would remain in countries they liberated from Germans.

Poland: Britain had gone to war in september 1939 to maintain the independence of Poland. However, Stalin believed soviet controll of Poland was essential to prevent future invasions.

Warsaw Pact: August 1944 polish resistance attempted an uprising against German forces occupying Warsaw (a city)Soviet army watched from the outscirts of the city and waited until after the Poles were crushed as the defeat left the Poles defeceless against a Soviet occupation.

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How did the Cold War develop? 1943-56 - Origis of

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Wow this is detailed

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