- Imago Dei = Image of God. We develop into his likeness (Iraneus)
- We have human dignity and we are set apart.
- We have dominion over animals on the earth
- Our nature is to reproduce - 'Be fruitful and multiply'.
- Worth more than animals because we are made in the image of God
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- Created by God, we were meant to be perfect but we are not completely perfect
- We must be valuable because God is caring for us
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- Work for what we want eg. food
- Women now suffer in childbirth
- 'To dust you shall return'.
- We are punished
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- Story of Abraham and Isaac = we fear God
- Faith in God
- He values them if they have faith and believe in him
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- Our personality is a function of biological organism transacting in a social and cultural context.
- Ethical decisions are based on reason, empathy and concern.
- All knowledge comes from the senses.
- Don't believe in a spiritual world
- Don't believe in evidence that life survive the death
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- We naturally base morality on the principle of utility = The greatest good for the greatesr number
- Idea of relation is a fictitious entity by its necessary for convenience
- Natural Rights are nonsense
- 'Self regarding interest is predominant over social interest'.
- Individual should be given equal consideration
- 'Every individual in the country counts for one, no more'.
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John Stuart Mill
- Rejects Bentham's view of humans being driven by self interest
- Desire for perfection and sympathy
- People themselves are capable of improvements
- We have a desire of perfection. Sympathy towards other humans = we value other humans.
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- Our aim is to reproduce and we are merely carriers of DNA
- We have no soul
- We should only believe in empirical things
- We are valuable for passing on successful genes and ensuring the continuation of humanity
- No bigger purpose in life
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- Humans are evolved animals and we aren't free = conditioned by external environment
- No interstate like soul or mind, but series of causes and effects governed by environment.
- Because we are just causes and effects we are de-valued.
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- Pain we feel is equal
- Capacity to experience and feel pain
- Capable of anticipating future and having wants and desires
- Humans and animals are equal although humans have more to lose than animals
- We are more valuable as there would be greater sense of grief and distress at death
- Value depends on quality
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