The Five Nutritions
Fat- Needed in small amounts to keep us warm, protect our vital organs and our skeletal system. Acts as an energy reserve.
Protien- Needed for growth and repair of body, tissue and to maintain and build cells.
Carbohydrate- It provides the body with instant and slow releases of energy. Also helps the digestive system.
Vitamins- Needed to stay healthy. They help to heal wounds, keep skin healthy and for growth in children.
Minerals- Many different needs in the body. Includes formation of bones and teeth, helps the nervous system and the forming of red blood cells.
Macro nutrients and Micro nutrients
Are needed in fairly large amounts:- -protein - fats - Carbohdrates
Are needed in smaller amounts:- - Vitamins - Minerals
- To make the body grow from a baby into an adult and when it has stopped growing, certain parts of the body continue to grow e.g. hair and nails.
- Repair the body when it is injured or recoving from an operation or illness and reguularly replace e.g. Skin cells and red blood cells.
- To give the body energy, although the body prefers to get most of its energy from foods containing carbohhydrates and fat rather than protein.
- Babies, children an dpregnent woman need more protein.
- There are approxinately 20 known amino acids of which are essential for growth and repair in children and 8 are essential for adults.
- High biological value (HBV) has all the amio acids e.g. meat, milk, cheese and some beans.
- Low biological value (LBV) has a few amino acids e.g. veg.
- Novel Proteins ar growth from micro-organisms which produce mycoprotein, know as quorn. It is amnufactured into chunks and mince so can be used in pies, sausages, burgers and ready ade meals.
- Quorn is low in fat, has no cholesterol and is a good source of protein for vegetarians.
Two main functions:-
- To give the body energy - our main source
- To help the body to get rid of waste products
Can be spilt up into 3 things:-
- Sugar e.g. cake, fizzy drinks, sweets
- Starch e.g. potatoes, pasta, rice
- Dietary fibre or Starch polysaccharide (NSP) e.g. brown bread, potato and fruit, veg skin
What happens when we eat carbohydrates:-
- when are eaten, they are broken down into glucose during the digestion and absorbed into the blood steam to be used for energy.
- Excess glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen and can be used when extra energy is needed.
- Eaten with protein allow the proteins to be used for growth and repair rather than energy
- Carbohydrates provide 50% of the total energy intake, with no more than 5% from sugars
- Too much Carbohydrates eaten and is not used up, you will get fat.
Stucture of carbohydrates
- All types of carbohydrates are componds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
- They can be classified in many differnt ways. One common way is according to their structure.
- They can be divided into three main groups accordig to the size of the molecue.
Simple sugars/carbohydrates Monosaccharides
e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose
Disacharides These sugars are formed when two monosaccharide molecules join together with the removal of one molecule of water.
Examples of disaccharides are:
- Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
- Lactose (glucose + galactose)
- Maltose (glucose + glucose)
Complex carbohydrates are called Polysacharides These are made up of many monosaccharide molecule (usually glucose), joined together.
Examples of polysaccharides are: Starch glycogen (the form in which glucose is stored in the body) Compon