The Five Nutritions

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The Five Nutritions

Fat- Needed in small amounts to keep us warm, protect our vital organs and our skeletal system. Acts as an energy reserve.

Protien- Needed for growth and repair of body, tissue and to maintain and build cells.

Carbohydrate- It provides the body with instant and slow releases of energy. Also helps the digestive system.

Vitamins- Needed to stay healthy. They help to heal wounds, keep skin healthy and for growth in children.

Minerals- Many different needs in the body. Includes formation of bones and teeth, helps the nervous system and the forming of red blood cells.

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Macro nutrients and Micro nutrients

Macro nutrients:-

Are needed in fairly large amounts:- -protein                                                                                                                                 - fats                                                                                                                                     - Carbohdrates

Micro nutrients:-

Are needed in smaller amounts:-                                                                                             - Vitamins                                                                                                                             - Minerals

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  • To make the body grow from a baby into an adult and when it has stopped growing, certain parts of the body continue to grow e.g. hair and nails.
  • Repair the body when it is injured or recoving from an operation or illness and reguularly replace e.g. Skin cells and red blood cells.
  • To give the body energy, although the body prefers to get most of its energy from foods containing carbohhydrates and fat rather than protein.
  • Babies, children an dpregnent woman need more protein.
  • There are approxinately 20 known amino acids of which are essential for growth and repair in children and 8 are essential for adults.
  • High biological value (HBV) has all the amio acids e.g. meat, milk, cheese and some beans.
  • Low biological value (LBV) has a few amino acids e.g. veg.
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Novel Proteins

  • Novel Proteins ar growth from micro-organisms which produce mycoprotein, know as quorn. It is amnufactured into chunks  and mince so can be used in pies, sausages, burgers and ready ade meals.
  • Quorn is low in fat, has no cholesterol and is a good source of protein for vegetarians.
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Two main functions:-

  • To give the body energy - our main source
  • To help the body to get rid of waste products

Can be spilt up into 3 things:-

  • Sugar e.g. cake, fizzy drinks, sweets
  • Starch e.g. potatoes, pasta, rice
  • Dietary fibre or Starch polysaccharide (NSP) e.g. brown bread, potato and fruit, veg skin

What happens when we eat carbohydrates:-

  • when are eaten, they are broken down into glucose during the digestion and absorbed into the blood steam to be used for energy.
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  • Excess glucose is stored in the liver as glycogen and can be used when extra energy is needed.
  • Eaten with protein allow the proteins to be used for growth and repair rather than energy
  • Carbohydrates provide 50% of the total energy intake, with no more than 5% from sugars
  • Too much Carbohydrates eaten and is not used up, you will get fat.
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Stucture of carbohydrates

  • All types of carbohydrates are componds of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen.
  • They can be classified in many differnt ways. One common way is according to their structure.
  • They can be divided into three main groups accordig to the size of the molecue.
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Simple sugars/carbohydrates Monosaccharides

e.g. glucose, fructose, galactose

Disacharides                                                                                                                 These sugars are formed when two monosaccharide molecules join together with the removal of one molecule of water.

Examples of disaccharides are:

  • Sucrose (glucose + fructose)
  • Lactose (glucose + galactose)
  • Maltose (glucose + glucose)

Complex carbohydrates are called Polysacharides                                                  These are made up of many monosaccharide molecule (usually glucose), joined together.

Examples of polysaccharides are:                                                                                   Starch                                                                                                                                   glycogen (the form in which glucose is stored in the body)                                                     Compon

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