The humanistic approach

Person - centered therapy

This therapy focuses on an individual's self worth and values. Being vaued as a person, without being judged can help an individual to accept who they are and re-connect with themselves.

Encounter groups

A group of people who meet in order to develop self - awareness and mutual understanding by openly expressing their feelings, by confrontation and physical contact.

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The Behaviourist approach

Systematic desensitisation 

This is where an individual is gradually introduced to the phobia it helps them to relax and be put into a pleasent situation. But this strategy could cause the individual distress and phychological damage. 

Behaviour modification 

This aims to extinguish any unwanted behaviour in favour of desired behaviour. This works by identify what is reinforcing the unwanted behaviour and reinforcing desired behaviour. 

Token economy 

This often involved the use of a 'token' (reward) to be reinforced for good behaviour which is later exchanged for something desired. It helps to changed the negative behaviour into positive behaviour. 

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The social learning theory


This is where the individual imitates a role model or provides an example for others to imitate. This can help the children to aquire more desireable bahviour. The role model can be a peer, celebrity, a parent etc. 

Social skills training 

This is helps individuals who have physical, emotional or mental prblems that have prevented them from developing good social skills. This helps tjem to understand the verbal and non - verbal behaviours. 

Family therapy 

This aims to help families and individuals within the family to cope with changes and difficulties in their lives. The family will be set targets in which they have to work towars this is called intervention technique. 

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The cognitive approach

Play with peers and adults 

This talks about how play can have a fundermental role in the develoment of cognition and this is by helping the children to learn new things. This helps the chidren to play through different situations just as an adult would think through that situation. Vygotsky believed that the children developed through social interactions, problem solving, verba and imaginative play with other individuals

Cognitive Behavioural therapy 

This is the attempt to modify behaviour by altering the behaviour's underlying cognitions. This strategy is a talking therapy and is where individuals talk about what their situation is. It aims to change the way the individuals think and change the way that they act. 

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The psychodynamic approach


This strategy is for adults and it is a long process which can involve weekly sessions over several years. It uses free association such as ink blot tests, dreams, nightmares and fantasies. This helps to bring the patient's conflicts into their conciousness so that they can understand, confront and resolve them. 

Play therapy 

Axline developed play therapy as the other strategy cannot be used on children. He believes that children express their concealed emotions through play. The child can use this to communicate at their own pace without feeling pressured. 

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