- Created by: H_H
- Created on: 04-06-17 13:37
Williams and Best
A Study of Stereotypes
Aim: To investigate the extent of sex stereotyping across 30 different countries.
Method: Participants were given over 300 characteristics and asked to state whether they were more likely to be associated wuth men, women or both.
Results: They found that across the 30 countries, the same charcteristics were ussually associated with males and female. Females were described as understanding, emotional and warm. Men were described as reckless, hard-headed and determined.
Conclusion: The findings of this cross-cultural study suggest that there are commonly held stereotypes of men and women.
Barrett and Short
A Study of Prejudice
Aim: To look at the development of prejudice among young children.
Method: Researchers interviewed 216 English children, aged 5-10, on their views and opinions on people from different European countries.
Results: At this age, children already demonstrated more positive views towards some European groups than to others. Germans were liked the least and the French were liked the most despite the children ahving no factual information on these.
Conclusion: By th age of 10, children already hold prejudiced views towards other nationalities.
A Study on Authoritarian Personality and Prejudice
Aim: To find out if there is a relationship between a person's personality type and prejucied beliefs.
Method: Hundreds of people were interviewed and tested using the F-Scale.
Results: They found a relationship between personality traits anf prejudiced views.
Conclusion: There is an authoritarian personality and people with these characteristics are highly likely to be prejudiced towards other people.
A Study on Prejudice, can also be used for In-Groups & Out-Groups
Aim: To find out if prejudice develops when groups are in competition for scarce resources.
Method: An American summer camp was organised for 22 boys, they were randomply split into 2 teams and kept away from each other; being unaware that the other team existed. The boys were given time to settle into camp and create a group identity. After a while, the 2 groups dicovered each other and the camp staff introduced a series of competitions, the prize being a silver cup for the winning team.
Results: Very quickly, the teams began unpleasant name-calling towards each other and tried to attack each other.
Conclusion: Competition is a cause of prejudice.
A Study on In-Groups and Out-Groups, can also be used for Prejudice
Aim: To see if people would be more likely to help a stranger if they believed that they had something in common with them.
Method: A situation was set up so a stuntman fell over in front of Manchester United fans. Half of the time he was wearing a Manchester United shirt, the other times he was wearing a Liverpool shirt.
Results: When he was weraing the Manchester United shirt, he was helped to his feet everytime. When wearing the Liverpool shirt, he was left to help himself everytime.
Conclusion: When we feel that we have something in common with others, we are more likely to help them in an emergency. We are less likely to help out-group members.
A Study on In-Groups and Out-Groups & Discrimination
Aim: To show how easily people discriminate against their out-groups.
Method: 14-15 year old boys were randomly assigned into 2 groups. Each boy was given a game to play where he had to award pairs of points. They were told the points could be swapped for prizes at the end.
Results: The boys awarded points by choosing the pairings that created the biggest difference between the groups, not the pairings that gave them the most points.
Conclusion: People will discriminate against others just because they are members of an out-group.
A Study for Reducing Prejudice
Aim: To teach her class what it felt like to be victims of discrimination.
Method: She told her class the following: blue-eyed children were smarter and better than those with brown eyes and that brown-eyed children couldn't play with the blue-eyed children in the play ground because they are not as good and they can't drink from the water fountain.
Results: The children's reactions to what she said was immediate. The blue-eyed children were delighted, arrogant and became vicious, whilst the brown-eyed children were angry, saddened, confused and withdrawn. On the playground, fights broke out between children who had been friends the previous day. The same day she reversed the experiment and found that the results were reversed for the way the children were feeling.
Conclusion: Elliott believed taht by getting the children to experience what it was like to be victims of prejudice and discrimination, they would grow up being more tolerant towards others.
A Study on Reducing Prejudice
Aim: To investigate children's views of the eldery.
Method: Harwood asked children and their grandparents about their relationships. The children were also questioned about their views of elderly people in general.
Results: Children who had regular contact with grandparents held positive views towards the elderly.
Conclusion: Contact with grandparents is a good predictor of a child's attitude towards the elderly.