Leisure, consumption and identity; Introduction to
Leisure is related to industrialisation because as we industrialized, workers had more money at their disposal, which would be more likely to be spent on leisure activities.
Leisure is a more important source of our identity because it presents who we are, e.g. Louis Vuitton - upper class
Marxism - it provides the ruling class with more money via manipulation of the lower class. It also provides a smokescreen for class consciousness, life is made bearable by leisure, it is a measure of social control.
Postmodernism - Leisure is our identities, we are what we buy.
Leisure, consumption and identity; Leisure, class
Parker; Upper classes leisure activities are an escape from work, e.g. the pub. Extrinsic rewards - when jobs are not enjoyed and are only done for the wages.
Middle class leisure activities associate work with leisure, e.g. dinner with associates. Intrinsic satisfaction - when the job gives a sense of personal fulfillment and money is not a prime factor.
Postmodernists see class and leisure as blurred, because anybody from any class can choose what they want to do.
Young people today is more celebrated, and they have more disposable income. Virtual youth is now a subculture through gaming consoles.
Leisure, consumption and identity; Leisure, gender
Gender influences our leisure activities through the norms, e.g. women are expected to go shopping and men are expected to go down the pub. Social classes of gender enhance this, middle class women go to gyms more than working.
Feminists argue womens activities are limited through home, and their activities are combined with housework.
Leisure, ethnicity and gender.
Hybrid cultural forms have emerged as diversity is celebrated, e.g there are black and female footballers.
Postmodernists - Ethnicity in particular will become less significant, as many people are trying to reach the same thing.
Leisure, consumption and identity;The leisure indu
Mass media is important because brands in one country can be found in another, e.g. Coca Cola
The tourist industry has changed through the low cost of transport, so access to more countries and more foreigners living in other countries.
Urry's Collective gaze - when people are needed in a visit, e.g night club.
Urry's Romantic Gaze - when we want to be alone in a visit, e.g. a mountain.
Modern theories believe in the collective gaze, with the people creating an atmosphere.
Postmodernists believe in the romantic gaze, showing their beliefs in anybody can afford a holiday, and instead the holiday we choose is who we are.
Leisure, consumption and identity; Inequalities in
Boundaries between work and leisure are changing, because we can check work e-mails in leisure time, and also increasing numbers work or set up businesses in leisure.
The optimistic view of this is postmodernism; media is polysemic and can be create identity through our experience of it, as is our consumptions.
The pessimistic view is Marxism, with mass consumption leading to a passive working class and not determing what is worthy and what isn't.
Income can constrain leisure choices, especially lifestyles, so the lack of money can lead to negative feelings about themselves and society.
Polysemic - having several possible meanings.