- cultural factors: class differences in norms and values
- theorists argue we aquire basic values, attitudes & skills needed for educational success through primary socialisation
intellectual development: - development of thinking & reasoning skills eg problem solving
- W/C home lacks books & educational toys which stimulate a childs ID so they start school without having developed intellectual skills needed to progress.
- the restricted code - used by W/C - limited vocab,short, unfinished and simple sentences, gestures, context bound
- the elaborated code - used by M/C - wider vocab, long, grammatically more complex sentences, context free. Gives M/C an advantage at school - textbooks,teachers & exams use elaborated code so feel 'at home' at school so are more likely to succeed . Textbooks use EC - dont know readers so have to spell out their meanings explicity so understood universally. School fails to teach W/C EC
+ recognises the school as well as home influences children's achievements
Cultural Deprivation 2
attitudes and values -parents' attitudes & values affect educational achievement.
- W/C parents placed less value on education, visited schools less often, less ambitious for their children = children had less levels of achievement moivation - lack of interest reflects subcultural values
- Hyman - values & beliefs of LC subculture = 'self-imposed barrier' to educational and career success - believe they have less opportunity for individual achievement & place little value on achieving high status jobs so see no point in education
- Sugarman - W/C subculture has 4 key features which act as a barrier to educational achievment:
1) fatalism- belief in fate, 'whatever will be, will be', nothing you can do to change your status.
2) collectivism- valuing being part of a group more than succeeding as an individual
3) immediate gratifacation- seeking pleasure now rather than making sacrifices in order to get rewards in the future
4) present time orientation- seeing the present as more important than the future = no long term plans/goals
Cultural Deprivation 3
compensatory education - a policy designed to tackle the problem of C/D by providing extra resources to schools & communities in deprived areas
- attempt to intervene early in socialisation to compensate children for deprivation they experience at home
- Operation Head Start (US) - introduced in 1960s to preschools in poorer areas - included impvoing parenting skills, setting up nursery classes, home vistors by health vistors & creating an intensive learning programme for deprived children.