Social Psych Studies

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  • Created by: llas7078
  • Created on: 26-10-15 04:23

Crash-risk optimism (p. 490) Results of driving s

  • Ask drivers to rate their driving abilities across different domains
  • Less than 10% think they're less skilled than other drivers, 60% thought they were more skilled

Item clusters (factors)

The items tended to cluster together into two groups, indicating different patterns in perceived superiority

Driving ability – some people rated themselves as superior in driving ability – judgment, reflexes, skills and experience

Driving caution – some people rated themselves as superior in driving caution – (not) being as risky, obey rules, safe

  • Men showed more self-enhancement on driving ability
  • Women showed more self-enhancement on driving caution
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Body-size (Donaghue, 2008)

Thirty Australian women and 30 men aged 18-88 years were photographed

  • Asked to judge their body size, attractiveness and sexiness. Others asked to make the same judgments of them
  • Both women and men judged themselves as larger than others judged them.
  • Both women and men judged themselves as more attractive and sexier than others judged them.
  • Body size judgments may be due to inability to compare oneself with ‘naked’ others except those who advertise underwear.
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Buss (1989)

  • Studied men and women from 37 cultures
  • Kindness and intelligence valued by both genders
  • Men prefer traits that signify fertility - symmetrical face, smooth skin, 7:10 waist - hip ratio
  • "Telling men not to become aroused by signs of youth ad health is like telling them not to experience sugar as sweet" (p.71)
  • Status, ambition and dominance cues appeal to women; characteristics that would provide resources to support children
  • Women prefer men 2-5 years older and men prefer younger women
  • Evolutionary argument:

. Younger women with the key physical characteristics more fertile

. Older men and men with high status more able to provide for children

  • Polygamous marriage systems may be explained by differential parental investment
  • Possible differences in jealousy explained by differential parental investment
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Zimbardo's prison study

  • Recruited college students to act as prisoners and guards
  • Found that they tended to assume the attitudes and behaviours associated with these roles
  • Recruited college students to act as prisoners and guards
  • Found that they tended to assume the attitudes and behaviours associated with these roles
  • Deindividuation - a process by which behaviours become acceptable in a group context that would not be outside that context, that is they lose their personal identity
  • Dehumanisation - when "victims" are not seen as a real person
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Asch (1956) Study of lines - Results

  • Only one-quarter of participants continued to always call out the correct answer
  • Most did not see the lines differently but were exceedingly embarrassed at stating a different line to the others in public
  • Did not conform to the same extent when they had an ally in non-conformity
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Obedience: doing as you are told Milgram (1963)

Predicted outcome

  • 14 psychology majors said maximum shock intensity would be used by 1.2% of participants
  • 40 psychiatrists said that it would be used by 0.1% of participants

Obedience explained in terms of:

  • The university setting, worthiness of the study and authority of the experimenter
  • The feeling of commitment and obligation to the experimenter
  • The subjects inability to check out the ambiguity of the situation with others
  • Being another persons agent
  • Ingrained habit of obedience

Variations

  • If a subject only had to enable another person to administer the shock 93% were obedient
  • If a subject had to put the learners hand directly on the shock, obedience dropped to 30%
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