Weber; life chances-
How some members of society have better it better than others to achieve desirable things e.g.;
Long, happy life
Fullfulling well-paid job
Own a home
Enjoy paid holidays & leisure time
Weber linked these desires to social class
- Intergenerated mobility (absolute); moblity between generations
- Intragenerated mobility (relative) between classes by indiv. in life
- Oxford Mobility study Goldthorpe; 10,000 fathers and sons, conducted after WW2- upward absolute mobility for everyone due to free education. Less manual work- more service sector- increase in absolute social mobility. However, relative mobility- 3 social classes- hardly changed. 1:2:4 Rule of relative Hope. Whatever chance wc. boy had of reaching service class- intermediate class boy- 2x more likely to, and boy starting off in service class- 4x chance.
- Essex Uni. mobility study; relative mobility still very unequal. Someone starting off in service class= 7x more likely to end up in service class then someone starting off in WC. background
- Savage & Egerton; longitudinal study (1958)- 53% wc. sons stayed in wc. Service class sons= 2x more likely to end up in service class jobs than wc boys. Women=different; wc. women more likely to move into intermediate classes + more service class women compated to men.
- Social mob. internationally- UK unequal compared to EU
Weber; most privilaged workers= most skilled & higer status- thus command higher wages
Workers with lower skills- poor market situation- less bargaining power
Marxism; inequal. at work due to capitalist owners keeping wages low to keep profits high.
Workplace inequalities; financial rewards at work; senior job roles often have better pensions, longer holidays & bonus opportunities.
Status; difference in work income= diff. status- uniforms, office spaces etc.. heirarchy
Job security- manual workers/routine workers= more likely to face redundancy than skilled workers
7% pop. privatly educated; make up or 71% senior jobs; e.g. 33% MPs
- Britain= one of the most unequal societies- income in EU
- 50's-90's- slight narrowing of income inequality- tho due to Thatcher, income inequalities rose sharply. Gov.- cut rates of income tax for very rich and cut many state benefits.
- Income ineq. slowed down in 90's, but is now increasing due to conservative gov.- tax and benefit reforms
- Benefits; makes up for 56% of gross income of poorest 5th households compared to 3.2% of riches-2012.
- Tax; poorest 5th paid 37.1% of their incomes compared to 35.1% of the richest 5th- due to direct taxes e.g. income tax fall most heavily on the rich, indirect taxes e.g. VAT fall most heavily on the poor
- High pay centre- total pay for cheif ex. of top 100 companies- risen by 49% compared to 3% of employees.
- CE earns 162 x more than average UK salery
- 3.5 M. chiildren in poverty in UK
- Labour gov.; child pov.= anyone below 60% of median income
- Conservatives removed target set by Labour to eradicate child pov. New factors- exam results, family breakdown & dept
- Lansley; developed focus groups asking people necessities- 50 items included- useed to list living standards survey on population. Households that lacked 3+ living necessities- concidered as poor. 5+= concidered in poverty
- PSE study 2012- majority- increase in povery since 1985. 85- 14%, 2012- 33%.
- Food poverty- Trussle Trust (2014)- 4.7M. people in food poverty due to insufficient income to afford healthy diet compared to 26,000 in 2008/9.
- Linked to age. Older= more wealthy via buying their own home & pension fund
- Birmingham commission report; those who were 55-64 years old- largest amounts of wealth. Inequality- poorest 10th- less than 28,000 pounds of wealth- top 10th=+1.3 M
- Wealth based on meritocracy e.g. Sir Sugar
- Atkinson; importance of inheritance on wealth. An increasing proportion of national wealth- based on inheritance (since 70's)
- Richest 62 people= as wealthy as half world's population- Oxfam 2011
- Least wealthy half of all households own just 9% of all wealth. Top 5th own 62%.