Skin and pressure sores

Skin and pressure sores theory

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  • Created by: Jonathan
  • Created on: 07-10-08 11:09

Layers of tissue which make up the skin

Epidermis - Most superficial layer of the skin and is composed of Stratified, Ceratinized squeamous epithelium and consists of four layers it completley covers the body.

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Layers of tissue which make up the skin

Dermis - The dermis gives skin strength and is formed from connective tissue (ceratinosytes the type of cell that makes up 80% of epidermis. It migrates deep from the epidermis and sheds from the skin.

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types of wound

Puncture / stab - Penetration of skin and often underlieing tissues, usually by sharp object eg knife.

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types of wound

Laceration - Tissues torn apart (open wound) the edges are often jagged.

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types of wound

Incision - Open wound deep or shallow, usually neat and done by sharp object such as in surgery.

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types of wound

Contusion - bruise due to trauma, discoloured due to blood escape (closed wound)

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types of wound

Abraision - Usually a scrape of the skin (open wound).

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type of wound

Penetrating wound - Penetration of skin and underlieing tissuees eg by a bullet (open wound)

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Wound healing stages

  • Inflamatory
  • Prolifeative
  • Maturation/remodling
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Nutrients for healthy skin

  • Vitamin a, b1, b5 and c
  • Zinc
  • Protein
  • Fluids (at least 2500ml a day)
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Layers of tissue which make up the skin

Melanocytes - Cells within the epidermis that produce melanin. Protects skin from sunlight and is derived from amino acids secreted by melanocytes from the germanative layer.

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Layers of tissue which make up the skin

Macrophages - A phagocytic tissue cell which protects the body from infection.

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Sweat glands

Eccrine - The most numerous type of sweat gland found all over the body, particularly on the palms of hands, soles of feet and forehead. Secretes sweat (99% water 1% fatty acids and protein) and helps to cool the body by evaporation as the blood vessels under the skin vaso dilate or vaso constrict depending on body temp. Smaller than other sweat gland and they are active from birth.

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Sweat glands

Apocrine - Mostly confined to the armpits (axilla) and the anal genital area. They typically end in hair follicles rather than pores. They become active at puberty, produce a sweat free of proteins and fatty acids, excrete pheremones and are active when sexually aroused to give of a scent to attract a mate.

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Glands

Subaceous - Secretery epithelial cells that secrete oily substance (cebum) into hair follicles. Its purpose to stop skin drying out and to kill bacteria.

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Glands

Ceruninous - Glands that are modified sweat glands that secrete ceranem (wax) a sticky material that contains lysozymes and haemo globulins.

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Glands

Mammery glands - Produces milk (lactation) and they are stimulated by the hormone prolactine.

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pressure sore

Pressure sore (decubitus) Analcerated area of skin caused by continous pressure on part of the body by an inmobile patient.

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