Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons
eperating Crude Oil
- Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons which produces many materials
- Seperated into different fractions using fractional distillation, which can then be used as fuels.
- Crude oil forms naturally over millions of years from the remains of living things.
- Most compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons.
- Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbons only. These are joined together by bonds called covalent bonds.
- THere are different kinds of hydrocarbons but most in crude oil are alkanes.
- Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons and share the same general formula CnH2n+2
- Distillation seperates a pure liquid from a mixture of liquid. It works when liquids have different boiling points.
- Mixture is heated in a flask
- ethanol has a lower boiling point than water so it seperates first.
- The ethanol vapour is then cooled and condensed inside the condensor to form a pure liquid.
- The thermometer shows the boiling point of the pure ethanol liquid.
- When all the ethanol has evaporated from the solution, the temperature rises and the water evaporates.
- Heating--> Evaporating--> Cooling--> Condensing.
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