Science Revision

Seperating Crude Oil

  • Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons which produces many materials
  • Seperated into different fractions using fractional distillation, which can then be used as fuels.
  • Crude oil forms naturally over millions of years from the remains of living things.
  • Most compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons.
  • Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbons only. These are joined together by bonds called covalent bonds.
  • THere are different kinds of hydrocarbons but most in crude oil are alkanes.
  • Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons and share the same general formula CnH2n+2
  • Distillation seperates a pure liquid from a mixture of liquid. It works when liquids have different boiling points.
  • Mixture is heated in a flask
  • ethanol has a lower boiling point than water so it seperates first.
  • The ethanol vapour is then cooled and condensed inside the condensor to form a pure liquid. 
  • The thermometer shows the boiling point of the pure ethanol liquid.
  • When all the ethanol has evaporated from the solution, the temperature rises and the water evaporates.
  • Heating--> Evaporating--> Cooling--> Condensing.
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Crude Oil and Hydrocarbons

eperating Crude Oil

  • Crude oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons which produces many materials
  • Seperated into different fractions using fractional distillation, which can then be used as fuels.
  • Crude oil forms naturally over millions of years from the remains of living things.
  • Most compounds in crude oil are hydrocarbons.
  • Hydrocarbons are compounds that contain hydrogen and carbons only. These are joined together by bonds called covalent bonds.
  • THere are different kinds of hydrocarbons but most in crude oil are alkanes.
  • Alkanes are a family of hydrocarbons and share the same general formula CnH2n+2
  • Distillation seperates a pure liquid from a mixture of liquid. It works when liquids have different boiling points.
  • Mixture is heated in a flask
  • ethanol has a lower boiling point than water so it seperates first.
  • The ethanol vapour is then cooled and condensed inside the condensor to form a pure liquid. 
  • The thermometer shows the boiling point of the pure ethanol liquid.
  • When all the ethanol has evaporated from the solution, the temperature rises and the water evaporates.
  • Heating--> Evaporating--> Cooling--> Condensing.
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