Stalin Ruler and Nature of Government
Power Struggle 1924-8: Following Lenin's death, a power vacuum was left and many people wanted the position: Trotsky (head of the Red army disliked by others), Kamenev and Zinoviev (often working together), Bukarin and Stalin. In the 1923 Testament Lenin left, he criticised Stalin as a leader and condemned him after the Geogran Crisis. The Circular theory of power: allowed Stalin to keep control as he was General Secretary who appointed the regional parties, who sent delegates to national congress who chose the central committee who chose the Politburo and Orgburo who appointed the General Secretary. Debates: Spcialism in one country (focus on Russia) was Stalins view Vs Perminent Revolution (focus on making world Communist) was Trotskys view. Also left communism (apposed NEP) Vs Right Communism (supported NEP). Decree on party unity stopped the Debates as any disagreement was kicked out. Isolates and defeats: Trotsky accused of causing a faction so was kicked out 1925. This Left Kamenev and Zinoviev out in 1927. Right Communist kicked out for supporting NEP.
Stalin In Control 1928: Policies: Industrialisation; Collectivisation; Purges and Foreign Policy(ww2) Method: Propaganda; Cult of Stalin; Terror form 1937-8 Stalin had 1 million people shot.
Stalin Ruler and Nature of Government NO 2
Purges: Chistka: the first type of purge of party members where 1/4 of party members were exspelled under Lenin. The Lenin enrolment of 1924 encoraged people to join party and the NEP had changed the dynamics of the party. 1928-30 the First Chiska took place where members had to self critisie and 11% of the party were removed. 1933 second Chistka members falts were delibratly picked out lead to a further 20% purged. 1936 3rd Chistka where they had to buy new cards and exsplain why they diserved it, 9% purged. Total 40,000.
Political Opposition: 166 of 1700 voted against Stalin. Trotsky in exile but still publishing anti Stalin books. Kirov shot 1st December 1934, by stalins assasin, who was then assasinated and the NKVD and emergency powers brought in.
1934-6 relaction of tension: Called Congress of victors 1934. Stalin constitution set up 1936 liberal (free press, speech, assemble, religion, voting)
Show Trials: Auguest 1936 1st show trial Kand Z and 14 others exicuted. 1937 second showtrial Radek, Piatakov. 3rd Show trial: March 1938 Bukharin, Yagoda, Rykov (tomsky suicide).
The Grate purge: Ezhovschina 1936-8: 1937 central commity orderd perges. Army purge 2/3 senor offices. Targests set Gulags. By 1936 only 16/71 of 1934 central committee alive.
Stalin Economy and society
Background: replacing small farms with Kolkozhy. Started by Lenin but only <2% by 1928. 1927 congress targeted 20% by 1933. Why: Show they were Marxist; Control peasants; A food supply to cities; fund industrialisation by exporting gain; isolate right communists who backed the NEP and to prove success to the world.
Events: Emergency Measures (1928 forced Requisitioning, end of Smychka, 100,000 workers sent to countryside. Urals-Siberian Methods (Nov 1928- Village meeting, Identification of Kulaks for 25% of grain as reward). Forced collectivisation (summer 1929-Collective farm center establighed 60% farms collectivised by 1930). Deculakisation, Collectivisation squad. Peasant opposition March 1930. "Dizzy with success". Stalin wrote in Pravda that it was "to exstreem" so layed off and Kolkozhy decreased from 60% to 20% in august. Collectivization resumed after a good harvest in 1930, followed by a famine in 1932-4 5 million deaths. Consolation (1935- private plots; 1 cow, 1 sow, 4 sheep. By 1937 - 93% in kolkhozy but were all worse of than fathers.
Stalin Economy and society NO 2
Background: Vesenkha (supreme council of national Economy); Gosplan set stats and targets for collectisation to reverce the "strategic retrear" of NEP.
Events: 1927-282 first 5 year plan set out by Gosplan (Targets-coal 100%, iron-200%, electricity 400%). Out comes- coal and iron dubled. Propigander, forced labor, gulas, kulaks 3 million. Stakhanovites (people trying to be the best workers). Lower living standerds. Fear (sabotage trials -shakhty 1928- 5 exsicuted). GNP 1928 - 100 by 1937 -172 by 1940 -203. Annual growth 5-6%.
Ordinary Peoples' lives: Religion: persecution began under Lenin = Lege of militant Godless 1930 30k churches by 1940 <1000 Curches. most turned in to museams of athests, some given license some undergrouns, reopend during war. Education: (1930- compulsory for 4 years of primary ed, night schools opend,96% litracy rates by 1939, more focused on tec and vocation) Youth: (yong pioneers, Paulik Morozon) Family life: (abortion and diviorce made more easy, then from 1939 made harder) Citys: (over crouded, no paint. bread 50% 1900 leavel. Countryside: (by 19400 grain reached 1900 level) Sport and culture: Thrived under state control.
Stalin War and Revolution
1930s: Stalin called for "socialism in one Country", focus on internal issues. COMINTERN set up to spred comunisom. Worried by Hitler Lebensram, "untermenshen, Anti- Soldhevik. Joined League of Nationsn 1934 ( stalin called it the "robber's den" Litvinov failed to organise European Alliance. April 1939 - Molotov becomes forigne minister.
Nazi- soviet Pact: August 1939. ten years non-aggression treaty. divided poland between the two of them. Finland invaded by Russia in the winter War 1939, won but sufferd heavy losses. This convinced Hitler that they could beet Russia. Soviet sphere of influnce set up.
The Grate Patriontic War 1941-45: Operation Berbarossa: Stalin ingnored warnings. 22nd june 1941 Hitler attact ussr aur craft attact Stalin dissapeard.Kiev fell. Moscow besieged as was Leninggrad (untill jan 1944). Turning point in war 5 million dead or captured. Kursk tank battle. Soviets back in control 1945.
Why did they win?: able to Sustain large losses; patroitism (11 million dead duting occupation); Propigander (uncle joe); War production (t-34 tanks 12 hour day and 6 day weeks) allied supplies, Leadership- Stalin and Zhukov.
Stalin war and revolution NO 2
Church: Attitude to Orthodox Church relaxed relaxed during war. New Patriarch called Stalin "God chosen leader of our military and cultural forces" (Pravda 1942) Synod re-instated, training for priests, synod reinstated.
Destruction: Civilian Deaths 19 million, military deaths 9 million, 1200 towns destroyed 65 km of railway track destroyed.
Natonalitys: Kalmyks, Chechens and Tartars transported to Kazakhstan. 1.6 million in camps by 1942. 4.7 million by 1947
Cold war: 1946 Churchill "iron curtain speech. 1947 Truman doctrine and Marshall plan. COMINFORM (to inform about communism). 1948 Berlin Blockade. 1949 Atom Bomb. Peoples republic of china. 1950 Korean war.
Impact on USSR: Huge military spending-. Methods of 30s (Stakhonvites, 1936 4th Five yeah plan despite famine and drought 1946, by 1950 USSR industry stronger than ever.