BIO AS Module 2 Food and health


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  • Created by: Jamie
  • Created on: 11-04-12 17:20


where does our nutrition come from? what si good food full of? what are their different kinds of in differnet foods? what is importnat we eat ? what wil good nuturin provide better? ensure? you become less? help you what? make you? and? define; nutrition

what must a balanced diet provide? what are the seven components of a balanced diet state its function? define baanced diet?

what intake is importnt to nutrition why is it impossible to give guidelines on energy intake? what does it depend on? in gneeral what portions should energy intake come from? what will increase in an acitve person? when do you know if you diet contains enough energy? if you gian weight? if you lsoe wight? what is malnutiruion caused by whats the bigget form in the word? what si obseiy caused by? what is oseity? when are you diagnosed with it? give BMI fornuka? whens  a person underwight? overweight? whast above that? what also has an effect fat deposited wise? here is it better the fact is deposited?

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food we eat, nutritents, differnt nutrients, mixed and wel balanced diet, health, stronger immune system, less ill, learn more effectivly, stronger and producive is nourihsment- the nutrients and energy needed for health and growth,

builfing blocks for growoth repair and enrgy intake, carbohydrates- our main source of energy, protiens- essential for growth and repair of msucle and other body tissue, fats- essential source of energy and are improtant in cell memrbanes waterproffoofin absorbtion of fat soluable viamins, vitamins- chemical processess taking place in cels some and watersoluable and somea re fat souable, minerlas- inorganic elements occuringg in the body that are essential to normal function, water- essential to body function used in transporting substances around the body as amian component of the body, fibre- iindigestibe oart of our food and is essential for healthy functioing of the digestibe system, one that contains all then nutrients required for halth in approprtiae portions,

 enegry intake, its diffetn for everyone, level of activity most from carbohydrates some from fats and little from protien, the amount of carbohydrates fat and protin shoud increae, is if your mass or weight cahnges, to much, to ittke, unbakcned diet, obseisty, to much energy, cndition in which excessive fat deposition impairs health defined as BMI body mass idnex, 20% above is obese, less than 18.5, ovr 25, obese class 1 and class 2 mordibldy obese, location of the fat deist, people with excess fat in the middle section more at risk

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Diet and Coronary Heart Disease

What is obesity caused by? What can severe obesity increase? Name 6 health problems linked to obesity?

What must the overall intake of energy be balanced with? to avoid? What is CHD the result of? Whats the deposition known as? What does the deposition reduce? What does the restrict? To where? What may it cause? What can help reduced CHD? Example? What will excess salt in the diet decrease? Whats the result? What increases? What can this lead to? What is hypertension? What can hypertension damage? What is this an early stage of? Are fats essential to diet? Are animal fats saturated? What Is unsaturated? What are more harmful? What saturates are benefical to health? What does cholesterol have similar properties to? Where is it found? What foods is it assosicated with? where is it made? From what? When is it harmful? What has high blood cholsetorl concentrations been linked to? What level should it be below?

What is cholestorl essential for? Where is it found? What is it used to make? Therefore what must happen to it? Is it soluable or insoluable in water? What must happen to it to be transported? What is it transported in? in what form? What are they? What are the two types of lipoprotein?  What combination produce HDL’s? where do they carry cholestorl from and to? What do the liver cells have? That allow? What is it used for in the liver? What are high levels of HDL’s associated with? what do they reduce? What may they even help remove? Are HDL saturated or unsaturated? Are they benefical to health? What combination producle LDLs? Where do they carry cholstorl from and to? What do the tissue cells have? That allow>? When will concentration of LDLs in the blood rise? What does a high blood concentration of LDL cause? What do different fats affect? What are saturated fats thought to decrease? What happens as blood LDL concentration rises? Whats the result? Where are they deposited? What do polyunsaturated fats increase? And decrease what? What also seems to help remove them? Do we eat lipoproteins? Does our diet effect them the concentration of them? Whats the best diet for them? What does that maintain? What ratio is important? Which liporotiens should be high and which should be low in cocnetration? What foods will increase LDL concentration? What foods will reduce the overall concentration of lipoproteins? What will increase HDL? What two will reduce LDL?

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Consuming to much energy, the risk of mortality, cancer cardiovascular disease type 2 diabetes gallstones osteoarthritis high blood pressure (hypertension),

Energy intake, becoming over or underweight, deposition of fatty substances in the walls of the coronary arteries, atherosclerosis, size of the lumen, blood flow to the hear t muscle, oxygen starvation, components of the diet, fibre moderate achol consumption and fish oils,The water potential of your blood, more water is held in the blood and blood pressure increases, hypertension, a condition in which the blood pressure is maintained at a level to high, the inner lining of arteries , artherosclerosis,  yes, tend to be saturated,, tend to be unsaturated, pollunsaturated and monosaturated fats, triglyceride, saturated fats in meats eggs dairy products, liver, when there is to much bood coronary heart disease, 5.2, 

normal functioning of teh body, cell membraes and skin, steroid sex hormones and bile, transported around the body, its not soluabe, converted to a form that willmix with water, in the blood, lipoproteins, tiny bals of fat combined with protein, High-density lipoprotein and low densiety ipoprotein, unsaturated ats choesotlr annd protein, body tissues to liver, have recptor sites, HDL to bind their cell surface membrane, cell metaolism to make bile or broken down, reducing blood cholestorl levels, deposition in the artery wals by artherosclorosis, remove the fatty deositions of atherscolorsis, unsaturated, yes rather than saturated, saturated fats cholesterol protein, liver to tissue, receptor sites allow DLto bind to their ceel surface membrane, the bood will rise, causes deposition in the artery walls, LDL receptors in anumber of different ways, activity of the LDL recptor, less is removed from the bood, high concentrations of DL in teh bood, deposited in the artery wals, the acitivty of LDL receptors amd sp decrease the concentration of LDL in the blood, monisaturated, dont eat lipoproteins, siginifacnt effect, low fat diet, ow lipoproteim concnetrations, HDL to LDL. HDL high LDL low, saturated animal fats, low fat diet, unsaturated fats, poly and monosatruated

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Improving Food Production

What can plants carry out? What happens in the process? What do they absorb? From where? To make what? What do most plants store energy as? What do they also absorb? Like? From where? To manufacture what? What are herbuvores? What are humans? What do we eat? Where do we gain nutrition from? What does the human food chain tend to be? What does making the food chain more efficient increase?

In plants how is it possible to make food production more efficient- what can be improved? Increased? Reduced? How can harvesting be made easier? Improve what? In animals its possible to- improve what? Increases what two things?

What is artifical selection? What does it appose? What is the purpose of artifical selection? What are the three stages? What is selected? What do they do? What happens to the offspring? What happens over generations? Whats the new technique known as? What is a section of DNA used as? To recognise? What are the offspring checked for? What does this allow?

What can also improve food production? What can be done to the response? What do fertilisers do? Like? What do they increase? What are pesticides designed for? What would these diseases do?

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photosynthesis, convert tthe enegry in light to a stored chemcial fpr,. carbon dixoide from the air and make carbohydrates, carbohydarte starch, minerals like nitrate from soil, a rnage of other bilogical molecules, are animas that make use of biological molecules when they and digest plants, omniores, eat both pants and meat, directly from plants and eating herbivorous animals, short, food production

improve gorwth rate, increase size of yield, reuce loss of crops due to diease and pests, make harvesting easier by standarising plant size improve plant response to fertilisers, improve the rate of hrowth increase productivity increase resistance to disease,

intetnional breed of certain traits orcombination of traits in contrast to the process of natural selection, is to increase the benefit to humans, isoaltion artifical selection and inbreeding or line breeding, seect a pair of animals or plant that dispay desirable characteristics allow the pair to reproduce the offspring are arefully sleected with the best charcterisitcs and they are allowed to reproduce, the required characteristics necome more exaggerated, marker assisted selection, as a marker to recognise the desired charcteristics, the marker, selection at an early stage

use of various chemicals, bred into the organism, replae minerals in the soil, nitrate potassium phosphate, rate of growth and overa crop size, kill organisms that cause disase in crops, reduce the yiel or kill the crop

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Microrganisms and food

How do many microorganisms obtain their nutrition? In doing so what is left behind? What might the organic matter be? Once the effects of their activity are noticeable what do we consider the food to have become? How many ways can microirganisms spoil food? The visible growth of what?  When is this most obvious? Give example? How long has the mould been growing before visible? Which colour is what fungi? What digestion process do microgranism use? What do they release into the food? To do what? What does the food smell of when this happens? Why? What will happen to the food eventually? What does the bacterium closturdium botulinum produce? What does this cause? If they are growing what is present? What can it do to humans? What can the prescene of microganism in food cause? Give example? Where is it present? What does it attack?

How can we prevent food spoilage? While its still? If food is to be kept for longer what must it be? To prevent? How can this be done? Or preventing? What must happen to the food to prevent further contamination? Name one way to kill microorganisms? What deos the heat do? What does pasterusing involve? Killing what? What does drying salting and coating in sugar do? What dos smoking do? What does pickling do? What does irraditaiton do? What does cooling and freezing do? What happens in canning? What does vaum wrapping do??

Where are microorganisms used? What is yoghurt? Whats affected the milk? What does the bacteria use? To make? Which causes? What do the bacteria partially digest? Making what easier? What can yoghurt help to ensure? What is cheese made from? What is the solid portion of milk acted upon by? What can the cheese be given? With what fungis? How is bread made to rise? How does It respiuire? Releasing what? What collects in the dough? Causing what? What is alchol a product of? Cereal grian contain what? Can be used to brew? Why? What do grapes contain? What does the yeast use them to make? What have mircroorganism been used to mafacture recently? Where is it used? What is this protein known as? Whats the best known protein made by microgranims called? What is it? Whats it made from? What people can eat it? Why? What can fungi pridyuce? Where can they grow?

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digesting the organic matter around them, wast eproducts, our food, spoilt, 4, on food, fungi grown on food, colonie sof the mould mucor and peniccilium often grown on bread, few days, back mucor or blue/green penicillium, external digestion process, enzymes, into the food and absorb the nutrients released by the breakdown of the food molecules, sweet, sugars released from carbohydrayes, mush by the action of enzymes, toxin called botulin, botulism, the toin is present, most toxi subsatnces known, can kill a person, infection, salmonela bacteria present in poultry attack th lining of the stomach and digestive systems,

using food quickly while it fresh, it must be treated to prevent spoilage, kiling microbes or prevtnign them from reproducing, packaged to prevtn further contamination, cooking, denatures enzymes and other proteins and kills the microorganisms, heating to 72 for 15 seconds then cooling rapidy, kills harmfu microorganisms, these processes dehydrate any miroorgansims as water leaves them by osmosis, develops a hardened dry ouer surface and smoke contains antibacterial hemicals, uses ph to kill microorganisms by denaturing their enzymes and other proteins, ionising radiation kills the microorganisms by disrupting their DNA structure, doesnt kill microorganisms but ****** enzyme activity so their metabolism growth and reproduction slow, canning, air is excluded so microbes cannot respire aerobically, plastic or paper packaging,

to manufacture food, milk, that has been affected by lactobacilus bacteria, the lactose sugar in milk to make lactic acid, the milk protein to thicken, digest the milk, esily digestable by humans, digestive sytsem contains the non pathogenic bacteria it needs to aid digestion, made from milk that has curdled, lactobacillus bacteria, additonal flacour by contamination with fungi like peniclium, by yeast, anaerobically to realse carrbon dioxide, bubbles of the gas, to rise, anaerobic respiration of yeast, sugar maltose, brew beer, yeast respires the sugar, sugar fructose and glucose, making wine, protein that i sused  food, single cell protein, uorn, mycoprotein made from fungus, meat subsitue for vegetarians, no animal fat or cholestorl, produce protein with a similiar amino acid profil eto animal plant rotein, any organic subatrte,

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Microorganisms and food

Advantages of using microrganims- name one? Rather than? what can be incraeed and decreased? According to what? What issues aren’t there? What type of people ebenfit? What doesn’t the protein contain? What could SCP production be combined with?

Disadvanteges- what might people not want to eat? The microorganisms in the ferementrers need to be what from the material they grown on? What has to happen to the protein? To ensure? What could the food be? Why? How does it differ to traditional food?

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production of protein can be many times faster than that of animal or plant protein, production can be increased and decreased according to demand, no animal welfare issues, provide a good source of protein for vegetarians, protein contains no animal fat or cholesterol, SCP production could be combined with remova of waste products,

fungal protein or food that has been frown on waste, isoalted from the amerial they grow on, has to be pruified to ensure its contaminated, the conditosna re ideal for pathogenic organisms and great care must be taken to ensure food is not affeceted, the protein does not have the texture of tradtional protein

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Organisms that cause disease

Define: health? If your in good health what are you free from? What are you able to carry out? Whats your diet? How are you emotionally? What about your housing? Society wise? Define disease? What does it cause? What can these synptoms be? What are there a wide range of? How can they be grouped? What are disease caused by living organism called? What are the symptoms? What can they effect?

What are parasites? What do they harm?how do they cause harm? How long do they remain on the host? What are parasites that live on the host called? Examole? Inside the host? Example? Does the host know? Why is better the host doesn’t know? What happens if parasites are to numerouis? What may parasites eventually lead to? What is the human body a good habitat for? Whats the result? Will they all cause harm? What are pathogens? How do they live? What do they cause in the process?

What kingdom does bacteria belong to? Size compared to human cells? Reproduction rate? Given what? Once in the human body what do they do? What does their prescence cause? How? Or? What is cholera caused by? What is tuberculosis caused by? What can fungi cause? Name two? What fungus causes it? What can cause skin disease? Where does it live? What does it send out? Where do they grow? To release? What do they cause? What do viruses cause? Including? What causes HIV/AIDS? What plant disease do they cause? What do viruses do? What do they take voer? What do they cause the cell to do? What does the host cell eventaulyl do? Releasing? What causes malaria? How do they cause harm? Whats the malarial parasite? What does it have? What does it feed on?

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state of mental physcial and social wellbeing, free from disease normal physical and mental tasks, balanced diet, happy with a positive outlook, suitably house with proper sanitation, integreagted into society, is a departure from good health caused by a malfunction of the mind or body, symptoms, physical mental social, diseeases, certain ccategories according to their cause. infectious disease, physica, some on mental and social

orghanismsthat live in or on another living thing causing harm to the host, taking the hosts nutirtion, all or partof their life, external parasites, head louse, internal parasite, tapeworm, may live unnoticed, so the host doesnt try and remove it, a huge burden, that allows organisms to invade tje jpst cause seoncary infection, a good habitat in which microorganisms live, numerous types of microgorgnaims that live in or on our body, many cuase no harm, some benefical, organisms that cause disease. taking nutrition from their host but cause damage in the process,

 prokaryotae, smaller, rapdily, the right conditions, multiply rapidly, disease by damaging cells or by releasing waste prodycts that are toxic, the bacertoi, vibrop cholerae, two secies of bacterium myobacterium tuberculosis and mycobacterium bovis, a variety of diseases, atheltes foot and ringworm tinea, skin diseases, in the skin, reproductive hyphae, grow to the surface of the skin to release spores, redness and svere irratiion, lot of well known disease, common cold and influenza hiv/aids, tobacco mosaic virus, invade cells amd take over the gentic machinery and other organelles, more copies of the cirus, eventauly bursts reeaseig many new viruses, caused by anima-like protoctista, enerting host ccells and feeding on the contents as they grow, plasmodium, immature forms that feed on the contents of the red lood cells

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Transmission of Diseases

In order to cause a disease what four things must a pathogen be able to do? What must a pathogenic organism need to be able to do? What must it pass when it reaches a new host? Once inside what must it then overcome? Or? What are most pathogenic organisms adapted to?  What are the three most common forms of transmission?

What is malaria caused by?  From what genus? What is there more than one of? Whats the most common? How is malaria spread? What carries the plasmodium? To where from where? What do female anopheles mosquitoes feed on? What do they have? What are they adapted as? What is used to penetrate? Where do malaria parasites live? What do they feed on? What will the mosquito ****? Into where? What do the gametes do? What develops? Where? What is formed? Where do they move? What happens when the mosquito bites an unifected person? As a what? What does the saliva contain? Where does the infective stages go? What do they do? Before passing into where? What do they enter? What is produced? Name other ways the malaria parasite can be transmitted?

What is HIV caused by? When it enters the body is it active? What is this known as being? What happens when it becomes active? What do these cells do in the body? What happens if they are destoiryed? What are you now unable to do? What can you contract? What actually kills a person then? What does AIDS stand for? Name all the ways HIV can be transmitted?

What is TB caused by? How many species? Name them? Where in the body is it usually ofund? How is it transmitted? Is it always active? What if it is? Where is the bacteria contained? when are these droplets released? How can someone be infected? What does it usally take to get infected? Name the conditions that make TB more contractble? Where can it also be contracted from?

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trave from host to host get into host cels reproduce cause damage to the host tissues, transmitted in a variety of ways, any primary defences, overcome secondary defences or immune responses, overcome this obstacles, a vector physical contact dropet infection,

eukaryotic organsiom from the genus plasmodium, different species plasmodium falciparum, vector, female anopheles mosquitto, plasmodium, infected person to uninfected, fedd on blood, mouthparts that are adapted as fine tube or proboscis, penetrate a bood vessel and withdraw blood, in the red blood cells of the human host, haemoglobin, the parasite gametes into its stomach, gametes fuse and the zygotes devop in the mosquitos stomach, ingective stages, mosquitos salivary glands, a little saliva as an anticoaguant, the nfective stages of the parasite, enter the iver, multipy before passing into the bood again, red bood cells, gametes are produced, unhygeic medical practice usncnreed blod transfusion placenta

Human immunodeficency virus, can remain inactive, HIV-potive, it attacks and destorys T helper cells in the immune system, help prevent infection, your ability to resist infection is reduced, to defend yourself against any pathogen that enters your body, oppurtunistic infections, it is the effecst of oppurutnistic infections that kill a person with HIV, aquired immune deficency syndrome,  exchange of bo fluid(blood to blood) unscreeed blood transfusions unserterilised mediacl equipment sharing needes across placenta mother ot baby breast feeding

bacterium, two, mycabacterium tuberculosis M.bovis many parts of the body, found in the lungs, dropet infection, in many its inactive or controlled by the immune system, in the tiny droplets of liquid that are released when an infected person coughs sneezes aughs or just talks, inhaling the droplets, close conatct over a long period of time, overcrowidng poor ventitlation poor health (someone has hiv) poor diet homelessness living or working with migrates from areas where tb is common, milk or meat

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The worldwide importance of certain diseases

What dose WHO stand for? What do they maintain? What does poor health cause? Why does poor health have an economic cost? What do some parts of the world no thave? In poor economically developed countries what contributes to the poor health of people?

Is the amount of people infected with malria increasing? What areas is limited to? What regions? Why might mosquitoes be able to survive further north soon? What scale is HIV/AIDS? Is it increasing? What scale is TB?

What do health organisation like WHO have limited? What do they have to do then? What do they use? To do what? Epidemiology determines cause, risk fator incidence prevalence mortaility morbidity what are they? what speed can they see? They identify if its endemic epidemic or pandemic what do they mean? What can they also identigy? From all of this what can be put into place?

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World health organisation, that good heallth is a human right, suffering, the need to provide medical services and the loss of productivty as poeplcant work when their ill, basic requirements for good health, poverty lack of shelter waer nutrition hygeine goverment interest health services education of diseases transport

Number increases, where the vector mosuito anophelese can survve, tropical regions (africa), global warming, orldwide disease, pandemic, increases, worldwide disease,

resources to combat worldwide disease, priotrtise their efforts, epidemiology to study the spread of disease and the factors affecting that spread, incidence- nuber of new cases in a population per year, prevelance- number of people with the disaease the that time, mortality- the number of people who die from the disease per year, morbidity- the number of people with the disease as a proporion of the popuation, endemic- always present in the populatin, epidemic- spreading rapidly to a lot of people over a large are, pandemic- worldwide epidemic, countries at risk which oarts of the population how wel control programmes are working, education programmes advertisments screening programmes specilaised haelthcare vaccination programmes research to find a cure

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Non specific responses to diseases

what must pathogens do before they can cause harm? What has evolution selected? To do do what? What are they called? Whats the main one? What does it cover? Whats the outer layer of the skin called? What dose it consist of? What are these cells called? What are these cells produced by? Where? When do they migrate? What happens as they migrate? What ris the cytoplasm replaced by? Whats this process called? How long does it take? Whats happened by the time the cells reach the surface? What happens to the dead cells? What does the keratinised layer of dead cells act as? What substances need to enter our blood? What does this leave the body? Why? What areas have great potential for infection? Where do we take air and food from? what could be harbouring them? What are these areas protected by? What does the epithelial layer contain? Called? What lines the airways? What does the epithelium also contain? What are they like? What dot hey do? What happens to it then? What kills them? What does it denature? Where are mucous membranes also found?What are the eyes protected by? In what? What is the ear canal lined with? what does it do? What is the ****** protected by?

Are trapped pathogens killed? why must they be killed? whos job is it to kill? What are the two types oh phagocyte? Whats the most common? How are they recognised? Where are they manufactured? Where do they travel? And often squeeze into? Where are they also found? Such as? How long do they live? When will they be in large numbers? What is the larger phagocyte? Manufactured where? Where do they travelk? As what? Where do they settle? Particulary? What do they devlop into? What are they also involved in? What do phagocytes do? what happens when a pathogen invades the body? What are these markers called? What are antigens to each organism? What do our own cells have why don’t they produce a response? What attachtes to the antigens? What are they? where are they found? What do phagocytes have? What does the receptor do? which are attacthde to what? What protein may assist tjis process? What will the phagocyte do once its bound to the pathogen? How? What is the pathogen trapped in? called? What fuses with the phagosome? And realse what? What are the enzymes called? What do they do? whats the end product? Where do they go? What happens to the neutraphils? Where may they collect? What do infected cells release? Such as? What is attracted? What does it make the capillaries? Whast the result? Whats cause? What passess where? What does this lead to what? What do the macrophagoes play an important role uin? Whats this known as? What is the immune response the activation of? To help fight what?

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enter the body of teir host, hosts adapted to defend themselves against such invasions, mechanisms to prevent entry of pathogenic organisms, primary defences, skin, the whole body, eperdermis, layers of cels, keratinocytes, mitosis at the base of the eperdermis, migrate out to the surface of the skin, they dry out, cytoplasm is replaced by the protein keratin, keratinisaiton,30 days, they are no longer alive, slough off, as an effective barrier to pahtogens,oxygen and nutrients from food, exposed to infection, the barrier between the blood and ouru enviroment is reduced, as airways lungs digeetive system , for infection, air and food from enviroment, microorganisms, mucous membranes, muscus secreting cells goblet cells, mucus lines, traps pathogens that may be in the air, ciliated cells, hair like organelles that can move and wafte muscus to the top of the trachea into the osephogus swaled into the digesitve system, acidity of the stomach, pathogens enyzmes, gut geniatl areas **** ears nose, eye are protected by antibodies inthe tear fluid ears have wax which traps pathogens and the vagoina is procted by maintainig reactivy acidic conditions

many trapped arent kied, they must be killed before they reproduce and cause symptoms of disease, numerous non-specific phagocytyes, neutrophil and macrophage, neutrophhil, multilobed nucleus, bone marrow, in teh blood, squexxe out of the bood into tissue fluid, epithelial surfaces ike lungs, short lived, lagre numbers as a rsesult of infection, larger cells, bone marrow, blood as monocytes, body organs particular lymph nodes, into macrophages, specific responses to invading pathogens, engluf and destory pathogenic cels, it is recognised as foreign by the chemical markers on its outer membrane, antigens, specific to the organism, antigens, arent recognised as our own so no repsonse, prteins called antibodies, membrane-bound proteins that act as receptors, bind to antibodies, pathogens, opsonins, it iwll envleop the bathogen, folding its membrane inwards, vacuole, phagsome, lysosomes, enzymes, ysisn, digest the bactierum, harmless nutrients, absorbed in cytoplams, are short liveed and die or collect in in an ara of infection to form pus, chemcias, histaine, neutrophils, capillaries lieaky, more fluid leves capilarie in the area of infection, swelling and redness, tissue fluid into lympahtic system, to macropahrge,, lymph nodes, intiiatng the speciic response to disease, immune response, acivation of lymphocytes in the blood to help fight disease

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What are antigens? What could any molecule act as? Describe the sizr? Describe their shape? What will detect a foreign antigen? What will it stimulate? What will these antibiodies be? Why can the antibodiy be thought of as specific to the pathogen? What are antigens usually? Where? What our own antigens recognised by? So it doesn’t?

What produces antibodies? In what? What are they released in response to? Describe the size? What are they? what are they known as? Describe their shape? Whats it complementry to? What must our body produce for every pathogen? What do antibodies attach to? To do what? Whats the antibody shape? What do they have two of? what does its structure include four of? heald together by? What is the same in all antibiodies? What does this enable? And help what process? What differs in antibodies? Whats this shaoe? What causes the shape to differ? What does it ensure? Whats the shape complementary to? What allows a degree of flexibility? What does it allow? Which is important at when?

How do most anitboides work? What is the antigen? Where? Give an example of when the pathogenmay have another use for the antigen? What could the antibody do in this case? What is this called? How are some antibodies bigger than the y-shaped structure described before? What do they have more of? what can each one act as? If it has a number of binding sites what can it attach to? Whats this called? If they are stuck together what cant they do?

When are antibodies produced? When an infecting agent is first detected what is produced? What takes a few days? What is this known as? What happens when the pathogens have been dealt with? what happens if the body is infected a second time by the same pathogen? What can happen this time round? Why? What rises sooner? What is higher? What is this known as?

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are molecules that stimulate the immune response, antigen, large, specific shape, detected by the immune system, the production of antibodies, specific to the antigen,the anitgen is specific to he organism and the antibody is speciifc to the antigen, protein or glycoprotien, in or on the plasma membrane, our immune sstem so no response is stimulated

Lymphocyte, the immune system, response to an infection, large proteins, immunogobulins, specific shape, coompelmentary to that of a particular antigen, antibodies specific to antigens, one type of antibody to eery entigen that is detected, attach to antigens and render them harmless, Y-shaped, two distinct region, polypeptide chains, disulfide bonds, constant region, to attach to phagocytic cels and helps in the process of phagocytosis, varibale region, speific shape, differs from all antibodies, amino acid sequcne, only attach to one antigen, compementary to the hsape of that antigen, hinge regions, branches of the y shaped molecue to move futher apart, attachment to more than one antigen

by attchting to the antigens on a pathogen, molecule, cel surface membrane of the pathogen, it may be a binding site which would be used to bind to the host cel, block thsi inding site, pathogen cant bind to its host, neutralisation, they resemlbe several Yshaped moecukes atatchted together, many specific variable regions, can act a sbinding site to bind to an antigein on a pathogen, it may be able to attach to a number of pathogens at the same time, agglutination, they cant enter the host cell

in response to the infection, antibodies, before teh number of antibodies in the blood rises to a level that can combat the infection sucessfully, primary immune response, the number of antibidoes drops rapidly, the anitbodies must be made again, immune system act quicer, antibiody prodution starts sooner more rapid, concentration ries sooner and reaches a higher concentration, seconary immune response

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Communication Between cells

What is the immune response? What does it involve? Between a wide range of what? To work effectively what do they need to be able to do? whats this known as? What is this communication achieved through? And the release of what? Called what? In order to detect a signal what must the target clel have? What do B and T lymphocytes have? What are they complementary to? What may the antigen be? What may it be attached to? Or ? when the antigen is detected what is stimulated? What are chemical signals detected by? Using?

What four pieces of information needs to be communicated in the immune response? What is the first signalling done by? What does the pathogen carry? Where? What do they act as? Which say? What are they are detected by? What happens when a body cell is infected by a pathogen? What will attempt to fight the invader? What are a number of damaged? Parts of what end up attached to the host plasma membrane? what can they act as? And be detected by what? Or they can act as? To indicta ewhat? what can T killer cells then do? what do macrophasges act as? To do what? But what don’t they do? what do they do? where is this exposed? What does it become known as? Whats its function? What is their a range of released by cells? What do these chemical signals act as? To what? What size distance do they act across? At what concentration? How do they act? On what? What will this cuase? What does this alter? What do macrophages release? That attract what? By? what can the monokines stimulate B cells to do? what do Tcells B cells and marophages release? Which? What can many cells release? Which can?

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Is a specific response to the detection of pathogens in the body, a coordinated respones between a wide range of cells, communicate, cell signaling, cell surface molecules and the release of hormone like chemicalss, cytokines, the target celll must havea  cell surface receptor, recptors that are complementary in shape to te foriegn antigen, isoalted protein, to a pathogen, surface of the a host cell, the lympohycyte is activated pr stimulated, their target cells using specialised cell srface receptors

identification sending distress singalls antigen presentation and instructions, by the pathogen, antigens on is cell surface, markers that say i am foreign, oru body cells, it is uslaly damaged i some way, lysosomes attempt to fight the invader, pathogens are damaged, pathogen, to the host plasma membrane, distress signals and can be detctedby cells from the immune system and they aso act as makrers to idnicate that the host cell is infected T Kilers can ecognise that the cell is infected and ust be destroyed, phagocytes to engulf and digest the pathogen, do not fully digest, seperate out the antigens and incoproate them into a cell surface molecule, on the surface of the macrophage, antigen-presenting cel, to find the lymphocytes that can neutraise that particuar antigen, cytokines, instructions to their target cells, short distances at low concentration, binding to speciifc membrane bound recpetors on the target cell, second messengers inside the cell, behaviour through gene expression, monokines that atract neutrophils chemotaxis, stimulate b cells to differntiate and realse antibodies, interleukins which stimulate proliferation and differentiation of B and T cells, interfron, inhibit virus replication and stimulate the activity of T killer cells

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The Specific Immune Response

What is the immune response? What does it involve? What are these? What do they have a large? What are speciliased? On their? What does the immune response produce? What do they do? what dose the immune response also provide? What does it produce? Through the release of? which do what?

What does an invading pathogen have? What triggers the immune response? What do these lympocytes carry? What are the receptor molecules? That have a shape? To what? When can the immune response begin? How many of the correct T and B cells in the body? So what does it take? What increases the chances that the correct B and T cells will locate the antigens? What will cells that are attacked by the pathogen display? What can macrophages become? What is many of displayed? What is the selection of the correct B and T lymphocytes known as? Before they become effective in fighting the pathogen what must increase? What is this called? How do the lymphoyctes divide?

What don’t the B and T lymphocytes manufactore directly? Once selected what does the T lymphocytes differentiate into? What are the three types of cells? What do T helper cells do? hich stimulate? What do T killer cells do? whats the other T cell? What two types does the B lymphocyte develop into? Where are the plams cells? What do they manufacture and release? What do B memory cells do? what do they act as?

What does each process take? What must the correct of be selected? What must the cells divide to increae? What must they differentiate into? What must the plasma cells manufacture? How long will it take before the number of antibodies in the blood start to rise? What does the immune response leave? What if theirs a second invasion by the same pathogen?

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is a specific response to the detection of pathogens in the body, B lymphyocytes and T lymphocytes, white blood cells, large nuceus and speciliased receptors on their plasmam membrane, antibodies, they neutralise the foreign antigens, long term protection from disease, immunological memory, memory cells, ciruuate the body for a number of years

foreign anigens, they must be detcted by specific T and B lymphocytes, the corrcet recprtors molecules on their membranne, cel surface proteins, that have a complemnetary shaope of th antigen, the immune response can begin, there maybe one or a few of them, some time to find the antigens, the preentation of foreign antigens by a number of cells, will display antigens on their surface, macrogphages in the lymph system beoce antigen-presenting cels, many copie s of the antigen, clonal selection, increase in number, clonal expansion, mitosis

antibodies directly, three type of cell, T helper T killer and T memory, release cytokines that stimulate the B cells to devip and stiulate phagoytois by the phagocytes, which attack and kill infected body cells, T memory, plasma cels and B memory cells, flow around in the blood manufacturing and releasing the antibodies, reamin in the body for a number of years and act as the imunological memory

takes time, lymphocyte, divide to increase in number, differntiate into plasma cells, manufacture antibiodies, few days, the numer of antiboides in teh blood starts to rise, memory cells, these can stimulate the production of plasma cellsad antibiodies quicker

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What does a vaccination provide? what does a person who have been vaccinated have? What is this created by? what dose the immune system do? whats the result? What provides the long term immunity? What can the antigenic material in vaccines take a variety of? name one? What are these like in comparison to the real disease? What do they similar? So? Give example? Whats another form? Give example? Or it could be a? give example? What could it be a preparation of? give example? Harmless what? Called? Give example?

What helps deal with with the disease quicker? What is herd vaccination? What happens oince enough people are immune? Whens it effective? When is ring vaccination used? What does it involve?

What can many pathogenic organisms form? How? What will this mean for the vaccination? What type of pathogen is a particular threat? What is influenze? Caused by? what does it affect? Whos at risk? Occasionally what jappens? What can it cause? How do we try to avoid pandemics? What is undertaken to determine whioch of the strains of flu are likel to spread that year?

What is active immunity? What do lymphocytes in the body manufacture? And release themwhere? How long can this form of immunity last? Or? Whats passive immunity? How may the antibodies be provide? how long is this immunity?

How is natural immunity gained? What may it be gained as a result of? that stimulates? How is artifical immunity gained? Is natural immunity active or passive? What is artifical immunity?  Give examples for all?

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immunity to specific diseases, artifical immunity, exposure to antigenic material that has been rendered harmless, as a real disease, the immune system manufactures antibodies and memory cels, memory cells, forms, whole living organism, not as harmfu simiar antigens so the antibodies produced wil be effective agaisnt the real pathogen, smallpox, a harmless or attentuated version of the pathogeinic rganism, measels TB, dead pathogen, typgoid choera, preparation of the antgens hepitits B, harmless toxins, toixd, tetanus

form of reporting rpocdeure, using a vaccine to provide immunity to all or almost all of the population at risk, the diease can no  longer spread, vaccinate almost all the population, whena  new case of a disease is reported, vaccinating al the people in the immediate vicinity, houses viallge town, livestock disease,

new strain, mutation, exisitng vaccines will have no effect, viruses, kier disease, virus, respiratory system, elderly, a new strain of flu virus arises that is particulary virulent, epidemic, pandemic, people at risk can be immunised, research is undetaken,

is the immunity chieved by the immune system, anitbodies and reease them into the bood, for many yearss to iftimes, provided by antibodies that have not been manuactured by stimulating the recipents immune system, mother across the placenta or breast mik, short lived,

gained in the normal cours eof living processes, result of infection that stimualtes immune response, gained by deliberate exposure to antibodies or antigens, actie or passive, ative or passive, natural passive- plaentta  natura active- immunity provided by antibodies due to infection artifical natural injection of antibodies made by another individual artifical active vaccination

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Finding new drugs

Give three reasons why we need new drugs? Why are antibiotics beoming less effective? What does the new drug act as? What is at a selective advantage? What are they more likely to do? Whats the result?

Give one way a drug is discovered? What drug was found this way? how long have drugs been used? What does WHO calciate 80% of drugs come from? Give examples of traditional medicines? What was used in neoithic times? What was opium from poppies used as? What do these opiate drugs do? What does it mean if nerves cant carry impulses? What are there many example of animals doing? What do monkeys bears rub on their coast? As what? Why do chimpanzees fold leaves in a certain way? why do elephants seek clay? Why do birds line nests with leaves? What can we isolate by looking at tradiotnal medicnes and animal behaviour?

In recent decades where has the discovery of natural drugs been? What do they have that is hopeful? What can we use to screen natural chemcials? To decide wether they are? Where are most antibitoics come from? What do biologists hope to learn? What can they use this information for? What do pharamaceuitall companies look into? What do mny make use of what happens if the receptor site is blocked? Give eample of when this is possible? What needs to be known? Wat can be detrmined? What is the next step?

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ne wdisease, many disease dont have treatments, some antibiotics are becoming less effecive, microrganism continue to evolve, slection pressure, any microrganisms that are less receptible or resistant, mor elikely to surivie amd reproduce passing on the resistance to the next generation

By accident, peniccilin, centuries, raditional medicens, plants, poppies,  anaesthitics, reduce nervous action in the central nervous sytem, self medicating, citurs oil, isnectidies and antiseeptics to prevent inect bites, remove parasites from their digestive trat, to couneract toxins, to protect chicks from mites, the active ingredient in these natura medicnes

tropica platns their great diversity, new medical rugs to be dsicovered, bacterium stremtomyces , produces antibiotcs, genes, current production  methods, microrganism cause disease, receptors on plasma membrnaes, then the disease causing pathogen cannot gain acces to the cel, HIV uses receptor CD4 which can be isoated and sequenced, molecular modeeling can to determine the recptor shape, a drug that could block the recptor without causing side ffects,

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The effects of smoking

How many chemicals does cigarette smoke contain? What are they? What do they incude? What is a tar a mixture of? Including?

Short term effects- Where does tar settle? What does this increase? What reaction may it cause? What does this cause to contract? What gets smaller? Whhats restricted? What does the tar destroy? What doesn’t move? What does the tar stimulate? What do they release more of? Where does this mucus collect? What isn’t removed inside the mucus? What do they do? What combination can block the bronchioles? What is the presence of bacteria mean the lungs are susceptible to? What diseases? Long-term effects- what is a smokers cough an attempt at? What is it a result of? And the need to clear what to get air where what does a constant cough unfortunaty result in? what wil it be replaced with? What is this like? What also thickens what dos this reduce? what happens to air flow? What are frequent infections bought about by? What will that inflame? What does this damage? In particular what layr? What does it attract? From where into where? In order to do this what do they release? What do these enzymes digest? What enzyme in particular is used? What does this damage? Where is the greatest effect? What does loss of elastic tissue cause what doesn’t happen then as we exhale what coapses? Trapping what where? What can burst? Why? What does cigarette smoke contain a large number of? What do they cause? What is the most hamrfl? Where are these compiunds? Where does this lie? Where do the carogneic cel enter? Where do they enter in the cels? What do they directy effect? What is any change to genetic material called? What does mutation affect? What happens if the genes that control cell divison are affected?  What is this? Where does cancer often start? Why? How long does lung cancer take to develop?

What four diesases are assosicated with smoking? What is chrnic bronchitis? What is it accompanied by? What are the symptoms? What does it lead to increase risk of? What is emphysema? What does it cause? What do the lungs have a reduced? As what? What is their less surface area for? What will a person with it often be? Why? What will breathing become? Why? What is COPD? Hw is lung cancer recognisd? Where will pain be? What is blood in the sputum a sign of?

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over 4000, harmfuk, tar carbon monoxide nictoine, mixture of xhemicals, carcinognes

the lining of the airways and alvoli, diffusion distance for oxygen entering the blood and cabin dioide leave the blood, alergic reaction, smooth muscle walls of the airways to contract, lumen of airways gets smaller, restricts air flow to alveoli, cilia on the surface of airwys, unable to move the layer of mucus to the back of the mouth, gobletcells and mucu secreting glands sto enlarge and release more mucus, in the airways, bacteria and viruses, arent removed, mutipy in the mucus, combination of mucus and bacteri block the bornchioles, suscpetible to infeciton, infuene and pnuemonia, attempt to shift the bacteria laden mucus that collects in the lungs, irratition of aireays by the mcus and bacteria, the need to cear airways to get air down to alvoili, it own effects ike the deicate lining of the airways and alvoili to be damaged, scar tissue, thicker less flexile, thickens, reduces lumen of the ariway and the flow of air is permanenty restricted, infalme the lining of the airways, damegs the lining, epithelium, attarcts white bood cels, pathogenic microorgaisms, out of teh bood into the airways, enzymes digest parts of the linings of the lungs to pas through the spaces, elastaste elasic tissure in the lining fote lungs, smal bronchioles and alveoli, reduce elasitsy of alveolus walls, do not rcoil to push air out, collapse trapping air in alvoli, to burst as pressure in the lungs decrease, large number of carcinogenic copoinds, cancer, benzopyrene, tar, deicate sufrace of the lungs, cells of lung tissue, nucelus, the gentic material, mutation, uncontrolled cell divisoon, cancer, bronchi, smoke hits it first in the airway and dposits tar, 20-30 years,

chronic bronchitus, emphysemae, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and lung cancer, infammation of the lining of the airways, damage to the cilia and overproduction of mucus, irratation of the lungs coughing up muscus fied with bacteria and white blood cels, ung infection, the loss of elastcicty of the alveoli to burst, reduced surface are as air space is formed, gaseous exachang, short breath exercising harder to exhale, sahlow rapid, less oxygenated and fatgue occurs, combination of iseases that inlude chronci bronhtisu emphsyema and asthma,  continual coughing shortness of breath, pain in chest and blood cough sputum, blood is the firt sign of ung cancer

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Smoking - nicotine and carbon monoxide

What are two chemicals found in cigarette smoke? Where do they enter? And pass through what? Into what? What changes do they cause? What do these changes lead to? Name three? What does nicotine cause in peope? What does it have on the body? What does the body become? So what happens when the person doesn’t have nicotine in their blood? What does nicotine mimic? At what? What does nicotine cause the release of what does this hormone prepare? What does it increase? Constrictionof? Raising what where? What does nicotine also cause the constriction of? leading to? Reducing what? What can extreme cases laed to? What does nicotine also affect making them what? What does this increase risk of? what may form? What does carbon monoxide enter? What does it combine with? Does it combine more or less readily? What compoundd is formed? What does this reduce? when do smokers feel this? What will the body detect? What will rise? What can carbon monoxide also damage?

What are these changes a part of? that lead to? CHD is a multifactorial disease what does this mean? What are these called? What can carbon monoxide damage? What will also add to the damage? What is the damage repaired by? What type? What do these encourage the growth of? and? What do the depoits inclide? Frp, what? What also inreaes the deposition? What are the deposist called? What may they also include? Whats the process of depoisiton called? Where does this build-up occur? In what wall? What may it grow wnough to break? What does the atheroma eventualy form? Where does it stick out what dos this leave the artetry wall? Whats reduced? What does this restrict? What cant flow smoothly past the plaque? What does this increase the chance of? what does nicotine make platelets? What does it increase? What happens if the delicare membrane that covers the plaque is damaged? What is a blood clot known as? What may a clot stop? What do some clots do? Until? What will it stop? What are arteries that carry bood to the heart called? Where do they branch of? what type of blood do they carry? What are they prone to? What happens when the lume of a coronary artery is narrowed by a plaque? What can it lead to? What three forms does it take? Whats angina? What is a heart attack? Caused by whats heart failure? Whats this due to? What is a stroke? What is caused by? What two things causes this loss of blow flow?

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nictoine and cabron monoxide, cigerette smoke, the lungs, lung surface, blood, changes to circulation, increased risk of cardiovascular diseases including atheroscleorsis coronary heart diseases and stroke, addiciton, vairety of effects, used to these effects, no longer feels well unless he or she has nicotine in the blood, the action of transmitter subsances at the synapses between nerves, sensitive and the smoker more alert, adrenaline, variety of effects, actiivty, increasing heart rate and breathing rate, contricotn of arterioles, rasises the blood prssure, arterioles, extremities of the body, bood flow and oxygen delivery , amputation, patelets, sticky, of blood clot or thrombus, red blood cells haemoglboin,  more readily, carboxygaemoglobi, pxygen carrying capacity of blood, exercise, detect lower level of oxygen, heart rate, the lining of the arteries,

chain of events that can ead to serious diseases such as cornoary heart diseae, multifactoal, their is no single factor that causes it a number of factors contribute to the rosk of a person having it, risk factors, the inner lining endotheium of the arteries, high bood pressure, the action of white blood cells phagocytes, growth of smooth muscle and deposiion of fatty subatnce, cholestorl from low density lipopproteins, deposition of cgoesterol, atheromas, fibres dea blood cell and platelets, atherosclerosis,  under the endothelium, wall of rery, break through the inner linning of the artery, a plauqe which sticks out the lumen, rougher and ess flexible, lumen, restrics blood flow, blood,clot, sticky, of clotting, red blodo cells also stick to the exposed fatty deposits, thrombus, may stop the blood flow, a cot may break frww and be arried in teh bood till a narrower artery, lodge and stop the blood flowing in that artery, coronary arteries aorta close to the heart, high pressure, damage and atherosclerosis, it reduces the bood flow to the heart mucles which recieve oxygen for respirtion, angina heart attack or heaty failure, sevrer chest pain , death of part of the heart muscle, cannot sustain its pumping action, death of part of the brain tissue, loss of blow dow to that part of the brain, suddelny, blodo clot block an artery or the artery bursting

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Cardiovascular Diseases

What are cardiovascular diseases? What do they include? Where is cardiovascular common? Is the person aware they have it? What are CHD and stoke often from? What can cardiovascular disease lead to? What can treating cardiovascular diseases be?why? what do the drugs do? What may it inolve? Due to the expense what do health centres aim to do? How is atehrscolrosis reduced? What will be reduced? When does this emphasis of prevention  need to start?

What are the first signs of cardiovascular disase? What do they the result of? caused by? What does the narrower lumen increase? Raising what? What does it make the walls less? What does this mean  the walls cant do? What process makes it worse?  What is arteriosclerosis? What does it make them? What is it caused by? Like? What may a person with coronary heart diseae find difficult? What will they feel? What causes this? What does the atheroma narrow reducing what? When exercising what does the heart need to increase? What does the heart not receive? Or what? What does it become? In an effort to do what? What does the cardiac muscle not have enough of? what doesn’t it do? What does this result in? in advanced cases what may occur? How long does the pain last? What may also occur? If not trated what will it lead it to? Whats another symptom of cardiovascular disease?

Name all of the factors at increase the risk of CHD? Where is CHD less a problem in the world? Why? What are they more likely to die from?

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that effect the heart and circuatory system, atherosclerosis CHD stroke and arteriosclerosis, the more economically advanced countries, often unaware until it becomes obvious, atherosclerosis, disabling or death, can be very expensive, long treatments with drugs reduceing blood pressure and choletorl levels surgery, aim to prevent atherosclerosis, reducing risk faactors, tratment for ti ater in life will be reduced, childhood,

high blodo pressure and hypertension, narrowing of the artery lumen, casued by deposition of atheroma, friciton between blood and the artery wal, heart pumps hardered against hte frciting, raing pressure, ess eastuc, cannot dilate and recoil easily, process of arteriosclerosis makes this worse, the hardening of the artery walls which makes them less flexible, deposition of minerals such as calcium in wallasmand in the atheromas, to exercise, out of breath after smal exertion, atheroscsleoris in the coronary arteries, narrows the lumen of the artery, reducing blood flow to cardiac muscl, increase its outpit, aeerobic respiration, strain in an effort to pump more blood, pump as stronlg y required, insufficent quantities of blood flowing to the body muscles and lungs, angina, pain susbisdes quickly, heart attack, heart fauiure,  stroke,

age gender smoking obesisty high blood pressure high bood choestol physicla inactiy diet high salt intake no helthy fats no vitaimins and antioxidants gentics diabetes stress, ess economically developed, differnt ifestye , other diease hiv malaria

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The evidence linking smoking to disease

What increase over years? What correalation also increased? what is the comparison o facts and figures called? Who uses it? What can they identify? What can it be used to do?

What does epidomology show about smoking and death? Smoking and lung cancer? Links to other lung disease? Why is it not easy to link smoking to cardiovascular diseasses? What is clear? What is this likely to enhance? What has research shown filtered cigerettes do?

Which age group is smoking ess? Which is more? What part of the world is more?

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the amount of smokers, certain diseases, epidemioology,  health proessionals and organisation ike WHO, countries at risk age sex lifestyles affecting, hep coutnries target further spending research risk factors to find cures screening procedures target advice and education predict where a disease might become preleenat georphrapgcal areas at risk chek how well campaigns are doing

inceaed smking increases rik of early death, smokers are more ikly to get cancer, more liky to get it, there are many risk factors contributing, substacnes rleased in smoke can influence circulatory system in a way hat is liely to enahce atherosclerosis and other ciruclatory diseasess,

Adults, Teens, economically advanced

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