Biology retake

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Consequences of Obesity

- Increases your risk of coronary heart disease and stroke.
Raises blood pressure and blood cholesteral level.
Gently increases your risk of type 2 diabtetes - the body does not produce sufficient insulin of doesn't respond to the insulin.
Obesity raises blood lipid levels - risk for cardiovascular disease.

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- Higher your cholesteral level, the greater your risk of coronary heart disease.
- 45% of men and 47% of women die from coronary heart disease.
- Cholesteral os combined with proteins to from soluble lipoproteins.
- Two major transport lipoproteins: high-density lipoproteins - they have a higher percentage of proteins, low-density lipoproteins are the main cholesteral carrier in the blood

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- One of the main risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease.
- The haemoglobin in the red blood cells carries carbon monoxide from the smoke instead of oxygen.
- Artherosclerosis will cause further reduction of oxygen supply to the cells.
- This will result in an increased heart rate.
- Nicotine in smoke stimulates the production of hormone adrenaline, this increases blood pressure.

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- Phsical activity is one of the common risk factors for disease.
- Being active can halve the risk of developing coronary heart diease.

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The role of antioxidants

- Unstable radicals result when an atom has an unpaired electron.
- Highly reactive ones can damage many cell components including enzymes.
- This type of cellular damage has been implicated in the development of some types of cancer, heart disease and premature ageing.
- Some vitamins, including vitamin C, beta-carotene and vitamin E, can protect against radical damage. They provide hydrogen atoms that stabalise the radical pairing up with its unpaired electron.

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