RIO DE JANEIRO

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WHY IS RIO IMPORTANT?

  • Important industrial center - produces 5% of Brazil's GDP
  • Natural surroundings and beaches make it one of the most visited cities in the southern hemisphere
  • Rio hosted the 2014 Football World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games
  • Main manufacturing industries are chemicals, pharmaceuticals, clothing, furniture and processed foods
  • Main service industries are banking, finance and insurance
  • The Statue of Christ the Redeemer is one of the Seven Wonders of the World
  • A major port - main exports are coffe, suagr and iron ore
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LAND USES IN RIO

NORTH ZONE:

  • Main industrial and port area
  • The international airport and Maracana footbball stadium are here
  • An area of low-quality housing and favelas
  • The location of the Tijuca National Park

CENTRO:

  • The oldest part of the city - historic buildings
  • The cities central business district (CBD) and main shoppiong area
  • Many financial HQ's (Petrobras and CVBB - oil and mining companies)
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LAND USES IN RIO

SOUTH ZONE:

  • Developed with tunnels though the mountains
  • Main hotels and beaches (Copacabana and Ipanema)
  • Wealthy with luxury flats (the wealthiest in South America)
  • Overlooked by Rocihna

WEST ZONE:

  • Changed to a wealthy costal sub-urb with luxury appartements and tourist facilities
  • The indistrial area of Campo Grande has low-quality housing around the steelworks
  • The main Olympic Stadium and Competitor village for 2016 are here
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SOCIAL CHALLENGES

  • HEALTH CARE:
  • In 2013 only 55% of the city had a locl family health clinic
  • Services for pregnant women and the elderly were very poor - especially in the West Zone
  • Infant Mortality Rate of 21 / 1,000 - life expectancy of 45 years in some places
  • EDUCATION:
  • Is compulsory for children 6-14 years but only 50% of children continue after 14 (many get involved in drug trafficking)
  • Shortage of local schools and teachers, lack of money, low-paid teachers and children need to work - poor training for teachers
  • WATER SUPPLY:
  • 12% did not have running water - 37% of water lost through leaky pipes, fraud and illegal access
  • ENERGY:
  • Frequent blackouts due to electricity shortage (growing population will exacerbate this)
  • Many people from poorer parts get energy illegally by tapping into the mains supply which is risky and unsafe
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SOCIAL SOLUTIONS

  • HEALTH CARE:
  • In Santa Marta medical staff took a health kit to peoples homes which could detecta and treat 20 different diseases
  • as a result, infant mortality has fallen and life expectancy has increased
  • EDUCATION:
  • Local people are encouraged to voulenteer in schools and a private uni has opened in Rocihna
  • School grants are given to poor families and money made available for free sports lessons
  • WATER SUPPLY:
  • Improvng the quantity and quality of water in favelas and the Olympic Park
  • Seven new treatment plants ahev been built ince 1998 and over 300km of pipes were laid
  • By 2014, 95% of the population had a mains water supply
  • ENERGY:
  • 60km of new power lines
  • New nuclear generator
  • Developing a new Simplicio hydro-electric complex which will increse electricity supply by 30%, but it will taks 6 years and $2million USD
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ECONOMIC CHALLENGES

  • UNEMPLOYMENT:
  • A recession in 2015 has increased unemployemtn
  • High taxes, poor education and inadequate health care have been protested about 
  • Is a reason for the high contrasts in wealth
  • 20% are unemployed in favelas - most work in the informal economy (street vendors, labourers, drivers, maids or in the production of sweing and handicraft work for the local marked)
  • Informal work is poorly paid (£60 a month) and irregular
  • CRIME:
  • Murder, kidnapping, carjacking and armed assult occur regularly
  • Powerful gangs control drug trafficking 
  • Many people say that police are targeting favelas near the Olympic Park - which residents see as an attack on their freedom
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ECONOMIC SOLUTIONS

  • UNEMPLOYMENT:
  • Local government using youth education to help reduce youth unemployment
  • Schools of Tomorrow programme aims to improve education for young people in poor and violent areas (including practical and skills-based courses)
  • Courses are available for adults who have temporarily left education
  • Free childcare is provided for teenage parents to return to education
  • CRIME:
  • UPPs (Police Pacifying Units) were established to reclaim favelas from drugs gangs
  • Police have taken control fo crime-dominated Complexo do Amelao and 30 smaller favelas
  • Lower crime rate, increased property value and growing tourism are positive results of their fight against crime in favelas
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ENVIRONMENTAL CHALLENGES

  • TRAFFIC CONGESTION:
  • Rio is the most congested city in South America - increasing stress and pollution levels
  • Lots of steep mountains - main roads on costal lowlands become congested
  • Tunnels through mountians are needed to connect different areas fo the city
  • The number of cars in Rio has grown by 40% - high crime levels, people travel by car
  • WATER POLLUTION:
  • Guanabara bay is highly polluted (major threat to wildlife)
  • Commercial fishing has declined by 90%
  • Over 200 tonnes fo raw sewage pours into the bay each day
  • Over 50 tonnes of industrial waste enters the bay each day
  • Oil spills from Petrobas oil refinery
  • Ships empty fuel tanks there illegally as there are not facilities for them to do it anywhere else
  • WASTE POLLUTION:
  • Many favelas are on steep slopes with no proper roads - access is difficult for waste collection lorries
  • Most waste is dumped and polluted the water system, causing diseases like cholera and encouraging rats
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ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS

  • TRAFFIC CONGESTION:
  • Expansion of the metro system under Guanabara Bay to the South Zone and Tijuca
  • New toll roads into city cnter to reduce congestion
  • Making coast roads one-way during rush hour to imrpove traffic flow
  • WATER POLLUTION:
  • 12 new sewage works have been built since 20004 at a cost of $68 million USD
  • Ships are fined for illegaly dishcharging fuels into the bay
  • 5km of new sewage pipes have been installed (aroound badly polluted areas)
  • WASTE POLLUTION:
  • A power plant has been set up near the Rio University using methane gas from rotting rubbish 
  • It consumes 30 tonnes of rubbish a day and can power 1,000 homes
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ROCINHA

  • Population of 250,000 (in 2014)
  • Built on a steep hillside looking over Copacabana and Ipanema beaches (very rich areas)
  • Regular work in wealthy areas allow residents to make inprovements to their community
  • 90% of houses built with bricks, electricity, running water and sewage systems
  • Many houses with TVs and fridges
  • Newspapers and Radio Stations
  • Retail facilities including food, clothes and video rental shops, bars, travel agents, McDonalds
  • Schools, health facilities and a priate University
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CHALLENGES OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS

  • CONSTRUCTION:
  • Houses are poorly constructed (built illegally ith basic materials - iron, broken bricks, plastic)
  • Built on steep slopes - prone to landlsides (caused by heavy rain)
  • In 2010, 224 people were killed and 13,000 lost homes in a landslide 
  • Limited road access due to slopes
  • SERVICES: (in unimproved favelas)
  • 12% of homes do not have running water
  • Over 30% with no electricity
  • 50% with no sewage connections
  • Illegal electricity connections
  • Sewers are often open drains
  • Drinking water is usually from mains taps, which can be far away 
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CHALLENGES OF SQUATTER SETTLEMENTS

  • UNEMPLOYMENT:
  • Rates as high as 20%
  • Employment poorly paid with irregular jobs (informal sector)
  • Average income below £75
  • CRIME:
  • Murder rate of 20 / 1,000
  • Drug gangs dominate many favelas
  • Inhabitants distrust polic due to violence and corruption
  • HEALTH:
  • Population densities of 37.000 per km2
  • IMR of 50 / 1,000
  • Waste cannot be disposed of so builds up in the streets - increasing diseases
  • Burning rubbish can ignite wooden houses and snoke is bad for health
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IMPROVING FAVELAS

  • Moving people to new areas such as barra da Tijuca to reecude overcrowding
  • Rehousing people from favelas in basic housing
  • Forced eviction from favelas to clear land for development
  • Developing rural areas to encorage people to live there
  • Raising taxes on the rich to help house the poor
  • Developing cultural activities for youths to prevent them getting involved in crime (samba classes, Afro-reggae)
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FAVELA BAIRRO PROJECT

  • IMPROVING LIFE:
  • Site and Service scheme - authorities provide land and services for residents to build homes
  • e.g. Complexo de Alemao
    • paved and formally named roads
    • access to water supply and drainage system (sanitation)
    • hillsides secured and people relocated  (landlsides)
    • health, leisure and education facilities built
    • cable car installed to Ipanema (one free return ticket per day)
    • access to credit to allow inhabitants to buy materials for their homes
    • 100% mortgages available to buy homes
    • UPPs set up with police patrolling the comminity to reduce crime
  • SUCCESS OR FAILURE?
  • SUCCESS - quality of life, mobility and employment prospects have improved 
    • also used for other Brazilian cities
  • FAILURE - budget ($1 million USD) may not cover all favelas
    • new infrastructure not maintained - residents do not have the skills to repair it
    • training required to improve literacy and employment 
    • rent has increased - the poor are even more worse off
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EFFECT OF THE OLYMPICS

  • Some favelas demolished to make way for developments
  • 1,000 lost their homes to make way for a new road
  • Plans to demolish 3,000 houses ahead of the games
  • 800 new houses built in Campo Grande in the West Zone for those whose houses were demolished - 90 minute drive from city centre
    • lacks a sense of community
    • has no shops
    • no-where for children to play 
    • very far away from the city
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RIO DE JANEIRO

RIO DE JANEIRO

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Comments

mrwb9876

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Excellent and detailed, thank you!

15changj

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These are excellent help for my exam!

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