Revoluitions 1820-40

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1820 Revolutions

Causes

Naples- King Ferdinand increased power of Church and restrictions with freedom, increase in poverty & gov corruption

Sicily- domino effect. wanted independence from Naples

Piedmont- domino effect. V.E I reactionary rulerhe abdicated- son Charles Albert accepted to form a new constitutional gov

Course

Naples- King agreed to new consitution- all male vote- limited loyal power

Sicily- got independence and own gov

Piedmont- Charles Albert takes control but elder brother Charles Felix was deounced as a rebel

Failure

Naples&Sicily- Revolutionary Gov of Naples refused independence of Sicily- Austrian intervention (and Peidmont)

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1830 Revolutions

Causes

Liberals& Middle class- demand for constitutional gov & middle class involvment in politics

Liberal Revolution in France- Domino effect

Course

Modena & Parma- both rulers flee. Provisional govs set up

Papal States- revolt brock out in Bologna- Pope's army put a little resistance. Provisional gov was set up in Bologna

Failure

Austrian intervention- rulers of Modena, Parma and the Pope appealed to Austria for help- revs were defeated by Austrain army

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Failures of 1820-30 Revolutions

  • Little communication: based around isolated units of Carbonari- didnt say plans/ tactics
  • Little cooperation: didnt cooperate with each other
  • Little coordination: had different aims and didnt coordinate thier activity
  • Different aims
  • Lack of mass support: little attempt to involve the mass of ordinary people- peasants
  • Lack of international support: France didnt intervene neither did other Great Powers
  • Metternich/ Austria: defended absolutism
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1848 Revolutions

Causes

Pope Pius IX: policies excited liberal opinion revolutionary sentiment everywhere

Agricultural depression: Italian economy dependent on agriculture- harvest failed throughout peninsula - price of food increased- poverty

Liberal & nationalsit agitation : against absolutism, repressive and corrupt nature of Italian govs

Revolution in France: domino effect

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1848 Revolutions course

Course

Sicily&Naples- successful both got what wnated

Central&Northern Italy:Provisional gov

Setbacks in Northern Italy & Failures in Sicily & Naples-Ferdinand gained control again- everything was reversed- reunited Sicily with Naples

Rise& Fall of Roman Republic

Rise 1848: end of Pope's& Church political power

Fall 1850: Pope returns reverses everything

Defeat od remaining Revolutions

1849: Charles Albert abdicated replaced by his son V.E I, austrian defeat

  • Sicily again governed by Naples
  • Lombardy ruled by Austria
  • Absolutists rulers returned
  •  Piedmont kept Statuto
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1848 Revolutions Failures

  • Lack of communication and coordination
  • Lack of cooperation
  • Leader
  • Military Resources
  • Lack of mass support
  • Foreign intervention
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