Why was slavery abolished 1833

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  • Why was Slavery abolished 1833
    • People
      • Thomas Clarkson
        • relatively happy- given lots of credit for abolition of trade
        • realised this wasn't enough and in 1823 started to gather activists calling for the abolition of slavery.
        • Along with Thomas Fowell Buxton  founded Society for Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery
        • It was this group (he was vice-president) that eventually secured abolition of slavery
      • William Wilberforce
        • Initially established The African Institution to civilise Africans
        • He believed slavery would end by its own volition.
        • published 'An Appeal to the Religion, Justice and Humanity of the inhabitants of the British Empire of behalf of the Negro Slaves in the West Indies' when he realised this would not happen.
        • became vice-president of the Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery throughout the British Dominions
        • retired due to ill health from the commons in 1825
        • had little direct impact in emancipation though supported Buxton
        • However his disappearance did help women's societies find their voice.
      • Thomas Fowell Buxton
        • Helped form society of the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery.
        • May 1823 submitted a motion for amelioration on behalf of Wilberforce.
        • After retirement of Wilberforce became leader of campaign in commons.
        • not that popular as radicals believed he was too slow and the conformists thought he was pushing too hard for change..
        • Introduced motion for freedom of slaves in May 1832 but in the radical political climate it was defeated.
        • Put pressure on PM to introduce new legislation early 1833.
        • negotiated terms of the apprenticeship scheme reducing apprenticeship time.
        • Government effecivley had to buy the slaves off the plantation owners which damaged his reputation as it amounted to 40% of national budget.
      • Elizabeth Heyrick.
        • Quaker who was influenced by brother Samuel. Organised sugar boycotts in Leicester. Helped form Birmingham ladies  society for the relief of Negro slaves. 1824 composed a pamflet for 'Immediate not gradual abolition'. Some such as Wilberforce disagreed.
      • Mary Prince
        • Accompanied owners (Woods) to England-oppourtunity for freedom 1828
        • High profile court case in attempt to set her free.
        • Woods eventually gave up and left England without her-she had freedom!
        • Went to anti-slavery society for help and got job with secretart of the society- Thomas Pringle December 1829.
        • She wrote an autobiography telling the truthful story of slavery.
    • Groups
      • The Society for the Mitigation and Gradual Abolition of Slavery
        • founded in 1823 by TFB, WW, TC and Henry Brougham.
        • initially aimed at reform not abolition
        • proposed a notion for amelioration in slave conditions 1823
        • 1830, influenced by by women organisations called for release of newborn enslaved children.
        • 1831 Agency Committee broke away to press for immediate abolition. though they did work together
        • slavery replaced with apprenticeships 1833 with 5,000 petitions, 1,500,000 signatures having been signed
      • Ladie's societies
        • Women had been forced back from the debate by conservatives like Wilberforce
        • became prominent conributors in 1820s (after Wilberforce's retirement)
        • despite opposition by late 1820s everywhere had Ladies' societies
        • 1830s 70 groups established with nearly every Christian group had a Woman's society
        • often more radical- 1827 Sheffield Female society was the first to appeal for imidiate abolition.
        • couldn't convince olcy makers to be more radical so removed funding (almost 1/5)
        • By 1830 main movement was camaigning for immediate action.
      • Missionary societies
        • Not strictly a society
        • influenced slaves to desire freedom more.
        • 1792 Baptist Mssionary society formed
        • worked to convert tens of thousands of slaves and made Christianity a powerful force.
        • Gave them ideas of freedom and equality (baptism) and encouraged revolts-Demera revolt 1823
        • so significant CofE created it's own missionary society in 1799.
      • Societies for people of colour
        • The freed Africans started to petition.
        • Jamaica 1823 societies started demanding greater rights such as voting and property rights, as well as greater role in civic society. normal working class people didn't even have the vote but makes abolition seem more reasonable.
        • 1829 had their own Newspaper 'The Watchman' which called for greater rights as well as destroying the idea that Africans were not educated.
        • helped influence Christmas rebellion (1831) which acted as a spur for emancipation legislation 1833.
    • rebellions
      • The Bussa Rebellion: Barbados Easter Sunday 1816, 200 slaves exeecuted, slaves angry that conditions have not improved after trade abolished.
      • Demera revolt 1823: sugar prices in decline so slaves worked even harder, rebellion starts under belief that masters hiding news of emancipation from slaves, Jack Gladstone in charge, around 9000 slaves involved, relatively peaceful on slaves part but brutal on side of plantation owners (Quamia Gladstone shot)
      • Sharpe's Rebellion 1831 (Christmas rebellion): Sharpe fought for freedom by organising a general strke in Jamaica, well respected Baptist preacher (killing more shocking), shows how brutally slaves were treated, amelioration had failed, system at breaking point, people shocked and appaled.

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