AQA Psychology GCSE unit 2

unit 2

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Psychology 2 Revision
Learning ­ a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience
Classical conditioning ­ a procedure during which an animal or person learns to
associate a reflex response with a new stimulus
Classical Conditioning Schedule ­ the steps in the procedure to condition a new
Unconditioned Stimulus ­ the stimulus that produces a reflex response, such as the
food for Pavlov's dog
Unconditioned Response ­ the reflex response to an unconditioned stimulus, such
as Pavlov's dog salivation
Conditioned stimulus ­ a new stimulus presented with the UCS, such as the bell in
Pavlov's experiment
Conditioned Response ­ the response that is learnt; now occurs when the CS is
presented, such as Pavlov's dog salivation
Extinction ­ a conditioned response dies out
Spontaneous Recovery ­ a conditioned response that has disappeared suddenly
appears again
Generalisation ­ the conditioned response is produced when a similar stimulus to the
original conditioned stimulus is presented
Discrimination ­ (with reference to conditioning) the conditioned response is only
produced when a specific stimulus is presented
Before conditioning trials Food Salivation
begin ­ a reflex UCS UCR
During conditioning trials Bell + Food Salivation
After conditioning Bell Salivation
Pavlov tried other procedures to investigate, for example, how long the learning would last
Thorndikes Law of Effect
Law of effect ­ behaviours that are followed by rewards are usually repeated;
those that are punished are not usually repeated
Operant conditioning ­ learning due to the consequences of behaviour, through
positive reinforcement or negative reinforcement
Skinner said that all behaviour is learnt from the consequences of behaviour
Punishment ­ a stimulus that weakens behaviour because it is unpleasant and we
try to avoid it

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Positive reinforcement ­ a reward or pleasant consequence that increases the
likelihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated
Negative reinforcement ­ when an unpleasant experience is removed after a
behaviour or action has been made.…read more

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Ethical implications
-the person loses their right to withdraw for the treatment to work they have to stay
-Very Stressful
-Psychologist has to judge exactly how much distress the person should undergo before
-Difficult to protect and avoid harming someone who is being flooded
Systematic Desensitisation
-Used if the therapist believes flooding would be too stressful
-The person has an active role and can always withdraw if they want to
-There is no deception
-This procedure is considered ethical
-Takes longer but still…read more

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Obedience ­ following the orders of someone we believe to have authority
Social Loafing ­ putting less effort into doing something when you are with others
doing the same thing
Deindividuation ­ the state of losing our sense of individuality and becoming less
aware of our own responsibility for our actions
Psychologists want to study and understand why we still obey, even when the orders we are
given make us do things that we feel are wrong
we follow the orders of someone…read more

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Bickman (1974)
Reasons for Obedience
-Legitimate authority
-Gradual Commitment
-Not feeling responsible
Social Loafing
Factors affecting Social Loafing
-Size of group you are with
-Nature of the task you are performing
-Culture to which you belong
As we become anonymous when we are in a large group
Zimbardo thought big cities were anonymous places and he wanted to see the effect this
would have on behaviour
Factors affecting Deindividuation
-Being able to hide one's identity
-Wearing a uniform
-Being part of a…read more

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Bystander Intervention
Kitty Genovese
Further studies of bystander intervention
1. Pilivian (1972)
2. Bateson et al (1983)
3. Schroeder et al (1995)
Bystander apathy
Implications of research into conformity
Studies of conformity have shown that it is hard for individuals to act differently from
the rest of the group.…read more

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Sex identity ­ a biological term, a child's sex can be identified by their hormones or
chromosomes. This determines whether the child's sex identity is male or female
Gender identity ­ a psychological term, a child's gender can be identified by their
attitudes and behaviour.…read more

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Imitation ­ copying the behaviour of a model
Vicarious Reinforcement ­ learning from the model's being either rewarded or
Social learning theorists believe that gender is learnt from watching and copying the
behaviour of others
Evaluation of social learning theory
-this theory is well supported by research; other studies have shown children learn their
gender through observation and imitation
-doesn't explain why children bought up in lone-parent households, do not have any difficulty
developing their gender
-doesn't explain why two children of the same…read more

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Evaluation of gender schema
-Most detailed and thorough explanation of gender development
-intuitive appeal ­ fits with our experience
-doesn't explain why some children are more highly gender schematised than others
-doesn't explain why gender begins to develop at the age of two
-doesn't explain why children choose same-sex friends and gender-appropriate toys before
they are able to correctly identify themselves as male or female
Aggression ­ behaviour aimed at harming others
Hormones ­ chemicals released by our endocrine system that affect how our…read more

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-only used murderers have to be careful generalising to the rest of the population
Further Studies
1. Young et al (1959)
2. Barker(1941)
3.…read more


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