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Psychology 2 Revision
Learning
Learning ­ a relatively permanent change in behaviour due to experience
Classical conditioning ­ a procedure during which an animal or person learns to
associate a reflex response with a new stimulus
Classical Conditioning Schedule ­ the steps in the procedure to condition a new
response…

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Positive reinforcement ­ a reward or pleasant consequence that increases the
likelihood that a behaviour or action will be repeated
Negative reinforcement ­ when an unpleasant experience is removed after a
behaviour or action has been made. This increases the likelihood of that behaviour
or action being repeated
Behaviour shaping…

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Ethical implications

Flooding
-the person loses their right to withdraw for the treatment to work they have to stay
-Very Stressful
-Psychologist has to judge exactly how much distress the person should undergo before
stopping
-Difficult to protect and avoid harming someone who is being flooded

Systematic Desensitisation
-Used if…

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Obedience ­ following the orders of someone we believe to have authority
Social Loafing ­ putting less effort into doing something when you are with others
doing the same thing
Deindividuation ­ the state of losing our sense of individuality and becoming less
aware of our own responsibility for our…

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2. Bickman (1974)

Reasons for Obedience
-Socialisation
-Legitimate authority
-Gradual Commitment
-Buffers
-Not feeling responsible

Social Loafing




Factors affecting Social Loafing

-Size of group you are with
-Nature of the task you are performing
-Culture to which you belong

Deindividuation

As we become anonymous when we are in a large…

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Bystander Intervention

Kitty Genovese




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Further studies of bystander intervention

1. Pilivian (1972)
2. Bateson et al (1983)
3. Schroeder et al (1995)


Keywords:

Empathy
Altruism
Bystander apathy



Implications of research into conformity
Studies of conformity have shown that it is hard for individuals to act differently from
the rest…

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Sex identity ­ a biological term, a child's sex can be identified by their hormones or
chromosomes. This determines whether the child's sex identity is male or female
Gender identity ­ a psychological term, a child's gender can be identified by their
attitudes and behaviour. This determines whether the child's…

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Imitation ­ copying the behaviour of a model
Vicarious Reinforcement ­ learning from the model's being either rewarded or
punished


Social learning theorists believe that gender is learnt from watching and copying the
behaviour of others

Evaluation of social learning theory
-this theory is well supported by research; other studies…

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Evaluation of gender schema
-Most detailed and thorough explanation of gender development
-intuitive appeal ­ fits with our experience
-doesn't explain why some children are more highly gender schematised than others
-doesn't explain why gender begins to develop at the age of two
-doesn't explain why children choose same-sex friends…

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Evaluation
-only used murderers have to be careful generalising to the rest of the population

Further Studies

1. Young et al (1959)
2. Barker(1941)
3. Megargee and Mendelsohn(1962)

Biological methods of reducing aggression
-Ritalin
-Psychosurgery

Psychodynamic Explanation
-Freud suggested aggression is caused by thanatos
-we use ego defence mechanisms to…

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