Psychology B543 GCSE

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  • Created by: LucyJo01
  • Created on: 15-06-17 11:51
Aim:
To investigate whether...
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Alternate Hypothesis:
There WILL be a difference / there WILL be a correlation
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Null Hypothesis:
There WILL NOT be a difference / there WILL NOT be a correlation
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Independant Variable:
What the researcher changes or manipulates
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Dependant Variable:
What the researcher is measuring
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Extranious Variable:
A factor in the experiment that is not the independant variable but that could affect the dependant variable if it is not controlled for. For example, the time of day/weather/noise levels etc.
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Standardisation:
Keeping variables the same across all conditions so that extraneous variables cannot affect the results. For example, giving everyone the same instructions.
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Independant Groups Design:
Using different participants in each condition.
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Repeated Measures Design:
Using the same participants across all conditions/
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Independant Groups Design Strengths:
No order effects such as practice or fatigue. Demand characteristics less likely
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Independant Groups Design Weaknesses:
More participants are required so not practical. Individual differences may affect the results.
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Repeated Measures Design Strengths:
Individual differences are NOT a factor affecting the results. More practical because fewer participants needed.
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Repeated Measures Design Weaknesses:
Order effects such as practice and fatigue/boredom. Demand characteristics are more likely.
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Target Population:
The entire set of people the researcher wants to be able to generalise their results to.
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Sample:
The smaller group of people selected from the target popultion who the researcher will study.
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Random Sampling:
Everyone in the target population has an equal chance of being chosen.
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Opportunity sampling:
The researcher chooses people who are available and convenient to gather.
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Random Sampling Strengths:
Avoids researcher bias since equal chance of being chosen. Tends to give representative samples.
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Random Sampling Weaknesses:
May draw a freak sample which is unrepresentative (e.g. all boys). Can be time consuming if population is large.
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Opportunity Sampling Strengths:
It is easy and not time consuming for the researcher.
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Opportunity Sampling Weaknesses:
The sample is researcher biased because they have chosen the participants themselves.
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Can Do Can't Do With Participants (mneumonic)
Confidentiality, Deception, Consent, Debrief, Withdraw, Psychological harm
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Confidentiality:
Participants' identities should be kept anonymous if their behaviour is recorded.
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Right to Withdraw:
Participants should be able to leave the study if they want to.
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Consent:
Participants should have agreed to have their behaviour studied.
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Deception:
Participants should not be lied to about the nature of the investigation.
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Psychological Harm:
Participants should not be caused unnecessary distress/embarassment/physical harm
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Debrief:
Participants should leave the study in the same state they entered.
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Labratory Experiment:
A controlled investigation where the researcher tests one or more variables to see the effect on another variable.
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Field Experiment:
A controlled investigation which takes place in a natural environment.
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Lab Experiment Strengths:
Since it is a highly controlled situation, extraneous variables will not affect the results.
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Lab Experiment Weakness:
It is an artificial setting so it lacks ecological validity. Participants are more likely to show demand characteristics.
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Field Experiment Strengths:
It is high in ecological validity because it is a natural environment.
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Field Experiment Weaknesses:
Extraneous variables are likely to be affecting the results.
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Self Report:
When participants give an account of their own experiences through interviews or questionnaires.
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Open Questions:
Allow the prticipant to answer how they please and with as much detail as they want.
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Closed Questions:
There is a set response to choose from (yes/no/numbers) which are pre-determined.
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Questionnaires Strengths:
They can access peoples thoughts and feelings. They are easy to compare to spot trends. Easy to administer to a large group.
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Questionnaires Weaknesses:
Social desirability may cause the particilants to lie. They may misunderstand the question and give unreliable answers.
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Structured Interview:
The interviewer uses a set of pre-determined questions.
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Unstructured Interview:
The interviewer has no set questions and asks questions based on the participant's answers.
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Interview Strengths:
Provide more in-depth information than a questionnaire. Can gain insight into a person's feelings. Can check what questions mean.
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Interview Weaknesses:
People may lie - social desirability. More time consuming than a questionnaire.
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Participant Observation:
The researcher joins in with the group of people (can be overt or covert)
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Non-Participant Observation:
Researcher observes the group from a distance.
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Participant Observation Strengths:
Researchers can experience a situation from the participant's point of view and gain insight.
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Participant Observation Weaknesses:
They may be subjective = researcher bias
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Non-Participant Observation Strengths:
Allows the researcher to be more objective and stand back to observe.
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Non-Participant Observation Weaknesses:
They cannot gain insight into the experiences of the group.
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Overt Observation:
The Participants are aware that they are being studied as the researcher is visible.
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Covert observation:
The participants do not know they are being observed.
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Overt Strength:
More ethical because the participants have given consent.
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Overt Weakness:
They are more likely to show demand characteristics
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Covert Strength:
Less demand characteristics and more natural behaviour.
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Covert Weakness:
Unethical because participants are deceived.
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Case Study:
An in-depth analysis of the behaviour of 1 person or a small group of people
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Correlation Study:
An analysis of two sets of data to look for a relationship between them.
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Longitudinal Studies:
Carried out over a long period of time using the same participants.
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Cross-Sectional Studies:
Two or more groups are compared or studied at the same time.
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Quantitative Data:
Numerical data / numbers / statistics / percentages etc
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Qualitative Data:
Uses language / descriptions / words.
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Mode:
Average using the most common piece of information
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Median:
Average using the middle number
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Mean:
Add all numbers up and divide by the number of numbers
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Validity:
Whether something is measuring what it says it is (accuracy/truthfulness)
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Ecological Validity:
Reflective of a real life situaion (e.g. a field experiment)
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Reliability:
If the results are consistent, and a replica of the study will produce similar results
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Inter-Rater Reliability:
When more than one researcher observe the same event and compare results to make sure they are interpreting the data in the same way - in agreement with each other.
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Demand Characteristics:
When people work out what the researcher is testing and change their behaviour because of this.
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Social Desirability:
Participants answering questions do not give honest answers and instead give the answers they think the researcher wants to hear
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Observer Effect:
Participants behave differently from normal because they know they are being observed.
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Gender Bias:
Differences between men and women are exaggerated and male behaviour is seen as the norm whilst female behaviour is seen as abnormal.
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Cultural Bias:
Viewing things only from the perspective of one culture, such as when findings are based off of the results of one culture, ignoring other cultures.
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Experimenter Bias:
Experimenters see what the want to see and may influence the outcome by interpreting the results to support their hypothesis.
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

There WILL be a difference / there WILL be a correlation

Back

Alternate Hypothesis:

Card 3

Front

There WILL NOT be a difference / there WILL NOT be a correlation

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

What the researcher changes or manipulates

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

What the researcher is measuring

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards

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