Research Methods 1.6 (How Science Works)

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  • Created by: studyssm
  • Created on: 07-05-16 10:18

Cause and Effect

     The study of cause-and-effect:

     Research can show that 1 factor actually causes a change in behaviour (effect). The more standardised a study and the more control of extraneous variables the higher the level of confidence in the results showing cause and effect. Increased reliability will also help as if the effect is seen many times when research is repeated then we can be reassured that the change in the dependent variable is caused by the independent variable


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Falsification

Falsification                                                                                          

We should be able to falsify or prove wrong the claim made by study's research

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Replicability

  Replicability

     The ability to be able to repeat and therefore support or refute the finding from another piece of research.


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Objectivity

Objectivity

 It is important that all researchers remain objective so all sources of bias should be removed from a study.


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Induction

 Induction

   This is the concept that we observe something and provide a theory for this.


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Deduction

Deduction

This is the logical conclusion based on unarguable proof so if we observe something in psychological research that is absolutely true and there is no other possible explanation then we would deduce that the conclusion is correct. This is difficult to do as it is unlikely that all participants give the same results.


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Hypothesis testing

Hypothesis testing

Once a theory has been identified based on observations then in scientific enquiry a hypothesis is formulated and this can be tested in empirical research.


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Manipulation of variables

Manipulation of variables

The IV must be manipulated so that we can see the results if it is or isn’t present. This will enable us to see if there is any resultant effect on the behaviour.

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Control and Standardisation

  Control and standardisation

    For us to be clear on cause and effect other extraneous variables have to be eliminated as far as possible. Keeping the test conditions, the same for every participant. It is a method of controlling situational variables or environmental factors which might have an influence on the participant’s behaviour. To keep all extraneous variables constant across experimental conditions, researchers use standard apparatus, standard instructions and procedures and standard locations.

 

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Quantifiable measurements

Quantifiable measurements

Quantitative data which is observable and objective should be used to identify the impact of the IV. It should not be data which rely on unobservable behaviour such as belief.

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