Religious Education - Religion & Life (Unit 1)

  • Created by: Chlouija
  • Created on: 14-05-17 15:47

Why Christian Families Raise Their Children to Bel

  • Christians believe is it their duty to marry, have a family and raise their children within the Christian faith.
  • Christians believe their religion gives children a secure basis and helps them through difficulties.
  • Sometimes children grow up and are introduced to different ideas and beliefs, and they may feel that the religion they were raised with is not right for them, this can be difficult for parents to accept.
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How Christian Families Encourage Children to Belie

  • Baptism: The child is welcomed into the Church with the family, friends and worshipping congregation's support.
  • School: Their parents may choose a Church school that helps to educate children in the Christian faith.
  • Parents' Examples: Seeing their parents praying, being told Bible stories and attending Church, children are more likely to follow their parents' belief in God.
  • Worship: Children attend Sunday School, Church services and celebrate Christian festivals.
  • Confirmation: The child is encouraged to confirm and renew the vows made for them in Baptism, when they're old enough to make their own decisions.
  • Community: A sense of belonging is created through the Church community.
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Religious Experiences

  • Numinous Experience: This is a feeling that amazes someone and inspires awe and wonder, leaving the person aware of a being greater than themselves.
  • Conversion: This is an event that causes someone to change their beliefs, ideas or lifestyle, usually the conversion of atheist to a believer in God.
  • Prayers: A method believers use to communicate with God, they will share their ideas with God, praise him, thank him, ask for forgiveness or show gratitude.
  • Miracles: An act by God which goes against the laws of nature, e.g. Jesus feeding the 5000 with 2 fish and a loaf.
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The Design Argument

  • Design is a result of intelligent thought.
  • The universe is too fantastical to have been an accident, for example, gravity and the ozone layer.
  • This suggests an intelligent being designed the universe.
  • The universe is too complex to have happened by chance or be designed by any other being than God.
  • Therefore, God exists.
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Paley's Watch - Paley's Version of the Design Argu

  • Paley likened the world to a watch.
  • If someone saw a watch for the first time, they'd know it was designed due to it's complex nature.
  • A watch had many carefully made parts that fit perfectly together, therefore it must have been planned and designed.
  • Paley argued the same of the universe, saying it could not have happened by chance and must have had an intelligent designer.
  • The only being known to be capable enough to design the universe is God.
  • Therefore, God exists.
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Argument Against Design Theory

  • The design argument only suggests there is a designer, it does not definitively prove God's existence.
  • Evolution: The idea that species developed gradually over millions of years and adaptedto their surroundings.
  • The appearance of design could be a result of evolution, because the gradual development creates such complex results.
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The Causation Argument

  • Nothing happens by itself.
  • Everything that happens must be caused by something else.
  • The universe could not have happened by itself.
  • A powerful cause was necessary to cause the universe.
  • This cause has to be God.
  • Therefore, God exists.
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The Cosmological Argument

  • Another name for the 'causation argument'.
  • 13th century, Thomas Aquinas argued that everything is caused by something else.
  • He argued you cannot go back indefinitely and that there must have been a first cause of the universe.
  • Aquinas believed this first cause had to be God and called him the 'Unmoved Mover'.
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Argument Against Causation Theory

  • The causation argument cannot be proved.
  • Everything in the world seems to have a cause, it doesn't mean the universe definitely had a cause.
  • The argument only suggests that God is the cause, it doesn't mean he definitely is the cause.
  • The Big Bang Theory: The idea that an enormous explosion started the universe around 15 billion years ago.
  • There are other possible causes of the universe, such as the Big Bang Theory.
  • If everything has a cause, what had caused God?
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Scientific Explanations of the Origins of the Worl

  • The Big Bang Theory: 
    An enormous explosion started the universe 15 billion years ago.
  • Evolution:
    Darwin's theory of the gradual development of species over millions of years.
  • Natural Selection:
    The way in which species naturally select the best characteristics for survival.
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Christian Response to Scientific Explanations

  • Some Christians believe scientific explanations are compatible with God.
  • The Bible's description of the creation of the world is more of a story.
  • The six days of creation were 'stages' not actual periods of time.
  • Science describes how the world came to be, the Bible explains why.
  • Creationists believe scientific explanations are wrong because they conflict with what is written in the Bible.
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Problems with Unanswered Prayers

  • Prayers are communication with God, people may think that God is not listening if they are not answered.
  • People who experience pain and suffering pray to God, if God does nothing about it, they may feel that God does not care about them.
  • Christians may begin to question their belief in God, start to reject him or believe he does not exist.
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Christian Response to Unanswered Prayers

  • They may accept that their faith is not strong enough for God to answer their prayers, and so must go on trying.
  • They may accept that God always hears and answers prayers, but not always in the way they hope or expect, they do not fully understand God's methods but will continue to trust him.
  • They may feel like God is not listening to them.
  • They may accept that God does not answer selfish prayers.
  • Some may accept that what they're praying for is not part of God's will or divine plan.
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Problems with Evil and Suffering

Moral Evil: Actions carried out by humans that cause suffering.
Natural Evil: Things that cause suffering that have nothing to do with humans.

  • Omni-Benevolence: If God is 'all-loving', he would want to remove all evil and suffering as he cares for his creation.
  • Omnipotence: If God is 'all-powerful', he would be able to remove evil and suffering.
  • Omniscience: If God is 'all-knowing', he would know how to remove evil and suffering.
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Bible Explanation to Evil and Suffering

  • Genesis says that God created a perfect world.
  • Adam and Eve used their free will in the Garden of Eden to disobey God, which allowed evil and suffering the enter the world.
  • God sent Jesus to Earth to overcome the evil in the world, and die for the sins of humanity on the cross.
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Christian Explanation to Evil and Suffering

  • Free Will: God gave people free will, so they have the ability to make choices for themselves.
  • Test from God: They're allowed to go through difficult times to see how they react, and test their faith in God.
  • God's Plan: People should trust God because he knows why everything happens.
  • Jesus' Example: Jesus set an example in the Bible for people to strive to do good.
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Christian Response to Evil and Suffering

  • Praying: God will give them the strength to cope with what they face, or they will pray for others sake.
  • Helping Others: Becoming a doctor or nurse so they can help others cope with suffering.
  • Strengthening Their Faith: They know that God has a distinct plan for them.
  • Volunteering: With a charity or organisation that supports other when they are suffering.
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Media Programmes or Films About Religion

  • 'Songs of Praise': Shows worship in a church, speaks to famous stars who are religious, and teaches about religion.
  • 'The Vicar of Dibley': A sitcom which features a female vicar and deals with many religious ideas.
  • 'Tsunami - Where was God?' - Documentary questioning the existence of God in the face of evil and suffering.
  • Radio Stations: Some feature segments to do with worship or religion.
  • 'Bruce Almighty': Based around the idea of taking on the job of God.
  • 'The Da Vince Code': Issues to do with Jesus.
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The Media's Effect on the Attitudes to God

Some show how religion can benefit the life of an individual, and how it can be a positive influence on them.

Some portray religion as something to laugh at and ridicule, or question God's existence. They suggest religious believers are crazy, or that there is something wrong with being religious.

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Why Christians Believe in Life After Death

  • Most believe that after death, the body stays in the grave and the soul goes to God for judgement.
  • Those who are good will go to Heaven, and the souls of unrepentant sinners will go to Hell.
  • Catholics believe in purgatory and that the body will be resurrected.
  • The idea that souls live on after death is called immortality of the soul.
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Protestant Evidence for Life After Death

  • Jesus told a thief on the cross that he would be in heaven that day.
  • Jesus said his father's house has many rooms.
  • The Church teaches that all Christians, both dead and alive, belong to the Church.
  • Some believe that the paranormal, e.g. ghosts and mediums, are evidence of an afterlife.
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Evangelical Christian Evidence of Life After Death

  • Jesus' body was raised from the dead.
  • The creed (St Paul) quoted:
    'I believe in the resurrection of the body and everlasting life.'
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Roman Catholic Evidence of Life After Death

  • The resurrection of Jesus.
  • Teaching of the New Testament, e.g. the Book of Revelation.
  • Teaching of the Catechism, e.g. the Catholic Church.
  • The creed says that Jesus is 'seated at the right hand of the father and will come again to judge the living and the dead."
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The Effect on Christian Lives

  • They will live within the guidelines of the Bible and the Church because we will be judged by God.
  • Heaven offers comfort when our loved ones die.
  • Jesus teaches us to treat others how we would like to be treated.
  • Confession: Repent for their sins.
  • Prayer: More frequently to communicate more with God.
  • Good Work: They know God is watching them, so they will live how he wants them to, by helping others.
  • Vocation: They dedicate their lives to God through jobs such as a nurse, doctor, priest, minister, monk or nun.
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Muslim Beliefs About Akhirah

  • After death, the angel of death will take a person's soul to barzakh (the stage between death and judgement).
  • Allah judges each individual on the way they lived their life.
  • The body will be resurrected on the Day of Judgement.
  • Two angels will open the book which contains the record of what a person has done in their lifetime.
  • If their name is on the right side of the book, they will be sent to al'Jannah (paradise).
  • If their name is on the left side of the book, they will be sent to Jahannam (Hell).
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Why Muslims Believe in the Afterlife

  • The Qur'an states that we came from Allah and we must return to Allah.
  • Surahs II and 56 teach that those who live a good life will go to al'Jannah and that Allah is powerful but also merciful.
  • The teaching and practice of the the Prophet (the Sunnah).
  • The Qur'an and Shari'ah law teach that Muslims will be judged by Allah and their actions determine their afterlife.
  • Islam teachs that the good will be rewarded and the evil will be punished.
  • The Qur'an teaches God's judgement is final.
  • Only Allah's judgement puts the wrong of life right.
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The Effect on the Life of a Muslim

  • All Muslims try to follow the teachings of the Qur'an and Shari'ah law.
  • They try to follow the example of Prophet Muhammad.
  • They try to act the way Allah wishes, caring for others and not causing harm.
  • Muslims believe Allah sees everything they do, and they will be judged on this in the afterlife, so they will try their best to please him.
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Non-Religious Reasons to Believe in an Afterlife

  • Near-Death Experience: They're reported by patients pronounced dead for a short time, they describe leaving their bodies and seeing themselves outside of their body, some people have reported seeing dead relatives or bright lights.
  • Paranormal Activity: This refers to unexplained events that supposedly have a spiritual cause, ghosts are thought to be the souls of the dead that have not 'moved on', mediums also claim to be able to contact the dead.
  • Reincarnation: The belief that a person's soul is reborn into another body or form, believed due to déja vu and memories of the past.
  • Death is difficult to deal with, and afterlife makes life seem fairer.
  • People feel like their dead loved ones are still with them.
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Non-belief in Life After Death

  • Evidence: There is no evidence, people have not returned from the dead to prove it, and mediums are just scammers.
  • Mortality: A dead person's body decays, there is nothing else.
  • Science: This explains everything in our world, we should not believe things that conflict science.
  • Religion is Outdated: Ideas of Heaven and Hell were folklore to control people and their behaviour, the Bible is no longer as relevant in modern day, some believe God isn't real so neither is life after death.
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The UK Abortion Laws

  • Abortions must be agreed by two doctors.

Abortion is allowed up to 24 weeks if;

  • There is a physical or mental risk to the woman's health.
  • The existing children would suffer or be at risk.
  • The child would be born severely disabled.

Abortion is allowed after 24 weeks if;

  • There is a risk to the mothers life, or serious mental/physical injury risk.
  • The baby will be born severely deformed.
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Arguments FOR Abortion


  • Women have the right to choose, it is their body.
  • In cases of non-consensual sex, abortion should be allowed.
  • It is kinder to allow abortion if the child will be severely disabled.
  • Babies have the right to be loved and cared for, and the woman cannot always provide this.
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Arguments AGAINST Abortion


  • Life begins at conception.
  • An embryo has the potential to be a human and has the right to life.
  • Disabled children have the same right to life as abled children.
  • Adoption is the alternative.
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Christian Arguments AGAINST Abortion

  • Abortion is viewed as murder.
  • Life is a sacred gift from God.
  • God has a plan for every human.
  • Life has value, even if a child may be born disabled.
  • Life begins at conception.
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Christian Arguments FOR Abortion

  • Jesus taught about compassion towards others.
  • We cannot be sure life begins at conception.
  • In cases of non-consensual sex or incest, it is the kindest action.
  • Medical technology allows us to identify problems with the foetus.
  • Abortion is the best choice if the mother's life is at risk.
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Different Muslim Views on Abortion

  • Some Muslims allow abortion in the first 16 weeks, others only in the first 7 weeks of pregnancy.
  • Ensoulment: Life begins when the soul has entered the foetus at 120 days.
  • Some Muslim women believe they should choose what happens to their own bodies.
  • Some argue abortion is acceptable in cases of non-consensual sex and incest.
  • Abortion is not allowed if the pregnancy is a result of adultery.
  • An unplanned pregnancy is not an acceptable reason.
  • Inability to care for the child is not an acceptable reason.
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Types of Euthanasia

  • Voluntary Euthanasia: A person's life is ended deliberately and painlessly at their request.
  • Assisted Suicide: Providing a seriously ill person with the means to commit suicide.
  • Non-voluntary Euthanasia: Ending someone's life painlessly when they are unable to ask, but you have good reason for thinking they would want you to do so.
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Euthanasia in the UK

  • All forms of euthanasia are against the law.
  • Switching off life support machines for a patient who is 'brain dead' is not considered euthanasia and is allowed.
  • 1993: The House of Lords rejected a proposal to legalise euthanasia.
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Ways in Which Euthanasia is Carried Out

Active Euthanasia - 
Carried out by a doctor performing a deliberate action, such as a lethal injection.

Passive Euthanasia -
When medical treatment or life support is withdrawn, or when a severely ill person is not given treatment to help them survive.

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Arguments FOR Euthanasia

  • Allows the patient to die a gentle, pain-free death.
  • The patient dies with dignity.
  • Euthanasia saves medical costs.
  • Medical staff can focus on patients with more chance of recovery.
  • It relieves the family burden.
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Arguments AGAINST Euthanasia

  • Sanctity of Life - Life sacred and belongs to God.
  • Slippery Slope - If euthanasia was legalised, it would lead to other things being made legal, which would lessen the value of life.
  • Some people may feel pressured into choosing euthanasia.
  • Hospices provide alternative palliative care for patients so euthanasia is not needed.
  • Doctors can be wrong about a diagnosis.
  • Helping some commit suicide means living with what you have done for the rest of your own life.
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Why Christians Believe Euthanasia is Wrong

  • It goes against the Sanctity of Life.
  • Life should be valued, even if someone is in pain.
  • Doctors or relatives may make the decision without involving the patient.
  • No one should be able to make a judgement about the value of another person's life.
  • No person should value themselves as so worthless that it would be better to die.
  • Euthanasia could be used for evil purposes.
  • Only God has the right to take away life.
  • It is seen as murder because it takes away a human life.
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Why Christians Believe Euthanasia is Right

  • They believe that God intends for everyone to a good quality of life.
  • Euthanasia, in some cases, is the lesser of two evils.
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Muslim Attitudes to Euthanasia

  • Human life is sacred because it is given by Allah.
  • All human life is valuable, even if a person is suffering.
  • Euthanasia is seen as suicide, which is not permitted.
  • Humans should not interfere with Allah's plan.
  • Suffering is a test of faith and a part of life.
  • It is a Muslims duty to care for the elderly and sick.
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Reasons FOR Media Criticising Religious Views

  • A variety of views are held and no view should be exempt.
  • Religious views may be wrong or seen as out of date.
  • It is important to debate views because they are constantly changing.
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Reasons AGAINST Media Criticising Religious Views

  • Religious views should be respected as they've been around for a long time.
  • They are based on traditional teachings such as those in the Bible.
  • The media should present a range of ideas, but not criticise them.
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How the Media Presents Issues to the Public

  • Newspapers: Shows opinions and highlights law changes.
  • Internet: Makes news and views available, but is not checked for accuracy.
  • Radio: Features discussions on life and death issues.
  • Television: News and documentaries inform people on issues.
  • Soap Operas: Storylines deal with difficult issues, which viewers may be able to relate to.
  • Situation Comedies: Use everyday situations for comedy, but also deal with issues.
  • Cartoons: Deal with issues in a more light-hearted way.
  • Films: Many look at life and death issues in depth.
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Reasons for Changing Attitudes Towards Marriage in

  • The UK is a multi-faith, multi-ethnic society.
  • People are more tolerant of differences.
  • Less focus is put on Christian teachings.
  • The Church holds less influence.
  • Decline in traditional family values.
  • Women are more equal to men in society.
  • Fewer people are getting married, and more people choose to cohabit (live together without marrying).
  • Homosexuality is more acceptable.
  • Civil Partnership Act 2004: Same sex couples are allowed to a legal commitment.
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Types of Families

  • Nuclear Family: A man, woman and their children living together.
  • Re-constituted Family: Stepfamilies that have joined together through re-marriage.
  • Extended Family: Parents, children, grandparents, aunts, uncles and cousins.
  • Single-parent Family: One parent and children.
  • Same-sex Family: 2 Same-sex parents and children.
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Bible Teachings on Sex Outside Marriage

  • Casual relationships are wrong.
  • Sex is special and should be saved for marriage.
  • Adultery is forbidden in the Ten Commandments.
  • Married couples should be faithful to each other.
  • "God wants you to be holy and completely free from sexual immorality" - 1 Thessalonians 4:3
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Christian Reasons why Sex Outside of Marriage is W

  • The Bibles says sex is for marriage partners.
  • Children born outside of marriage have a less stable family life.
  • Promiscuity makes people vulnerable to sexually transmitted diseases.
  • Sex unites a married couple.
  • Adultery breaks the marriage vows made before God.
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Christian Reasons why Premarital Sex and Cohabitat

  • The couple may love each other very much.
  • The couple may be in a long-term, committed relationship.
  • They may intend to get married in the future.
  • Living together helps the couple to find out if they are suitable marriage partners for each other.
  • Living together is a step towards marriage.
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Islam Teachings About Sex Outside of Marriage

  • Sex should be kept special for marriage, so at puberty boys and girls are kept separate.
  • Adultery is a sin and forbidden by Allah.
  • Muslims should not behave in a sexual manner towards others.
  • The main purpose of sex is procreation (to have children).
  • The ideal partner is someone who loves Allah.
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Why all Muslims Should Marry

  • Prophet Muhammad was married.
  • Marriage is Allah's intention.
  • Sexual desire is a gift from Allah and Muslims are taught to fulfill this through marriage.
  • Muslims do not cohabit because sex should only take place between a married couple.
  • Marriage brings Allah's blessing and forgiveness.
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Common Reasons for Divorce

  • Adultery:
    Where one partner cheats on the other.
  • Unreasonable Behaviour:
    Where one partner behaves badly towards the other.
  • Desertion:
    Where one partner leaves the other.
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Reasons for Different Christian Views on Divorce

  • Different Christian groups hold differing views on divorce becuase of the way they interpret the Bible.
  • People are less willing to accept bad treatment from their partners.
  • Women are more educated and much less dependant on men in todays society.
  • People are less religious today, and do not take marriage vows as seriously.
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Christian Beliefs on Divorce

  • Divorce is not recognised by the Catholic Church because marriage is intended to be for life.
  • Jesus said that divorce is wrong.
  • Marriage is a sacrament and divorce would break the promises made with God.
  • Jesus seemed to allow divorce in cases of adultery.
  • Divorced people can sometimes remarry in a church.
  • People can make mistakes.
  • God is ready to forgive sins.
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Divorce in Islam

  • The husband must announce his intention to divorce his wife, three times over a period of three months.
  • During this time, the couple live together but do not have sex in order to avoid pregnancy.
  • The couple and their families try and work things out.
  • After three months has passed, the couple are free to remarry.
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Why Muslims Believe Divorce is Acceptable

  • Marriage is a contract in Islam, not a promise to Allah.
  • The Qur'an allows Muslims to divorce.
  • Islam has rules for how divorce is to happen, and how divorced women and children are to be cared for.
  • The family is very important to Muslims, and it may be better for the children to have divorced parents than to live with hatred and bitterness.
  • Women may divorce their husband as a last resort.
  • If the husband is absent for a long time, in prison, refuses to provide for the wife or is unable to have sex.
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The Family in Christianity

  • The Foundation of Society: Children can be brought up in a loving family, they are taught right and wrong, and the family helps keep a stable society of mutual respect and love.
  • Family Relationships: The Bible teaches that children should honour and respect their parents, and parents have a responsibility to care for their children.
  • The Church: This is seen as the family of Christians, the Christian community can provide support to families.
  • Social Environment: Children introduced to the Church by family when they're baptised, they can attend Sunday schools, Church and be educated in the Christian faith.
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The Traditional Muslim Family

  • Muslim families are extended families, including parents, children, grandparents and other relatives.
  • They believe extended families offer greater stability, love and support.
  • The elderly are treated with respect, and children are expected to look after older family members.
  • Families are at the heart of the community.
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Muslim Family Values

  • Many religious activities take place in families, such as prayer and festivals.
  • The mother and father are responsible for raising their children as Muslims.
  • The family is the foundation of the Muslim community.
  • Children are taught to show love, kindness, mercy and compassion to one another in the family.
  • The worldwide Muslim family is the 'ummah', which all Muslims are a part of.
  • Family life is the first level of community in Islam.
  • The family provides a healthy and loving environment.
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Why Christians Believe Homosexuality is Wrong

  • Marriage was intended by God, to be between one man and one woman.
  • Same-sex couples cannot naturally have children, which is the purpose of Christian marriage.
  • Homosexuality is seen to undermine the family unit.
  • The Bible teaches homosexuality is wrong.
  • Some Christians teach that homosexuals should remain celibate (never have sex).
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Why Christians Believe Homosexuality is Tolerable

  • Homosexuality is perfectly natural and all humans are created equal by God.
  • Some Chrisitians will bless a homosexual civil partnership.
  • Same-sex couples demonstrate feelings such as love for each other, so should be allowed to celebrate their commitment.
  • Jesus taught Christians to 'love thy neighbour', meaning they should show respect to everyone, including homosexuals.
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Muslim Beliefs About Homosexuality

  • Homosexuality is forbidden in the Qur'an.
  • It is believed to be harmful to the health of individuals.
  • It is punishable by death according to Islamic Shari'ah law.
  • Homosexual relationships cannot produce children.
  • Homosexuality is seen as a threat to the stability of Islamic society.
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Reasons for Choosing Contraception

  • To plan when to have a family.
  • They are too young to have children.
  • Pregnancy may be harmful to the mother.
  • The couple carry genetic disorders.
  • They could not provide for a child.
  • Their lifestyle is not compatible with children.
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Christian Beliefs on Contraception

  • Every sexual act should be open to the possibility of having a child.
  • The main purpose of marriage is to have children.
  • Sex was a gift from God for procreation.
  • Contraception may encourage promiscuity.
  • Using contraception is not a sin.
  • In times of financial difficulty or ill health, contraception may be more acceptable.
  • Contraception can be used to help family planning.
  • Sex is not just for procreation.
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Why Muslims Believe Contraception is Acceptable

  • Muslim authorities allow contraception to preserve the life of the mother.
  • Muhammad supported the withdrawal method of contraception.
  • Some Muslim countries teach contraception through leaflets and posters for economic reasons.
  • All non-permanent methods of contraception are acceptable for married couples.
  • Both partners should be married and should consent to the type of contraception used.
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Why Muslims Believe Contraception is Unacceptable

  • Strict Muslim countries only allowed natural forms of contraception.
  • Permanent methods, such as vasectomy or sterilisation, are forbidden.
  • Methods that cause an early abortion are not acceptable.
  • Having children is very important in Muslim families, the use of contraception would prevent this, and so it is discouraged.
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Changing Female Role

  • Traditionally, a woman's role was to stay at home and look after the children.
  • World Wars (1914-18 & 1939-45); women took on the jobs of men.
  • 1918: Some women were allowed to vote.
  • 1945: Post-war, many women wanted equality and an end to sexism.
  • 1970: Women were given rights to equal pay.
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Changing Male Role

  • Traditionally, a man's role was to go out to work to provide for the family.
  • Men nowadays take a more active role in the raising of a children and in the home.
  • Men are willing to do tasks traditionally seen as 'womens work', such as cooking.
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Are Male and Female Roles Equal?

  • Men and women have equal rights.
  • Roles, such as nursing, are still seen as female.
  • Girls are beginning to achieve higher grades in examinations.
  • Surverys show men still earn 17% more than women for the same job.
  • People blame this on women having career breaks to have children.
  • Some also blame this on discrimination and prejudice.
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Reasons NOT to Accept Women as Church Leaders

  • The Bible says women should obey their husbands.
  • The Bible says women should be silent in Church.
  • All of Jesus' disciples were men.
  • Jesus left the Church in the care of St Peter, who was a man.
  • In the past, women were regarded as inferior because Eve was sinful.
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Reasons TO Accept Women as Church Leaders

  • The Bible says 'God created men and women in his own image'.
  • Jesus did not discriminate between men and women, he talked to and taught both.
  • Women followers were treated well by Jesus, and it was women who stayed by his cross and were first to see him after the resurrection.
  • There is evidence of women leaders in early Church.
  • The Golden Rule suggests that everyone should be respected.
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Different Ways of Interpreting the Bible

  • Some believe the Bible is the absolute word of God, so anything it says cannot be changed or avoided, it has to be taken literally.
  • Some believe the Bible was written by humans and reflects the view of people at that time.
  • Some believe the Bible is relevant as a moral guideline, but has to be changed and adapted for todays society.
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Muslim Men Roles

  • The Qur'an teaches that men are to protect women.
  • Men should provide for their wife and children - raising them within Islam.
  • They should dress modestly in loose clothing, and covered from naval to knee.
  • They should attend the Mosque for prayer.
  • They worship separately to women in the Mosque.
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Muslim Women Roles

  • They are required to have children.
  • They are expected to look after the home and children - raising them within Islam.
  • They should dress modestly in loose clothing.
  • They do not have to attend the Mosque for prayer.
  • They worship separately to men.
  • They are free to work and have a career.
  • They are not in positions of authority in the Mosque.
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Problems in a Multi-ethnic Society

  • Ignorance: Being uneducated about others.
  • Racism: The belief that some ethnic groups are superior to others.
  • Discrimination: Treating someone differently because of previously held prejudices.
  • Persecution: As a result of racism, many people from ethnic minorities have had their human rights abused because of their nationality or colour of their skin.
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Benefits of a Multi-ethnic Society

  • Encourages racial harmony - helps people of different races and cultures understand each other.
  • Gives wider variety of music, food, clothes and culture.
  • Brings new people with fresh ideas.
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Benefits of Community Cohesion

  • Different communities are living together.
  • Appreciating and valuing the differences between people.
  • Making strong and positive relationships between people.
  • Ensuring equal opportunities for all.
  • Sharing a common vision and sense of belonging.
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Government Actions to Prevent Racial Discriminatio

  • Race Relations Act 1976: Made it unlawful to discriminate because of race or national origin, in employment, housing, education and welfare.
  • It was made illegal to use abusive or insulting words of a racial nature in public.
  • Commission for Racial Equality: Established to fight racism, teach the importance of equality and deal with complaints.
  • Britishness Test: All new immigrants must test to ensure they have a basic knowledge of British life.
  • Community Facilitation Programme and Neighbourhood Renewal Units: Ensure ethnic minority communities had the skills necessary to work, opportunities for young people, and appropriate healthcare.
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Christian Teachings About Racial Harmony

  • The Parable of the Good Samaritan, Jesus taught that people follow God's command and love one another.
  • The Golden Rule states to treat others the way you would like to be treated.
  • They should promote racial harmony, because through doing this they are putting these teachings into practice.
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Examples of Racial Harmony

  • Dr Martin Luther King: Worked for equality of black people in the USA, put Christian principles of helping others into action, and his work resulted in black people having equal voting rights in 1965.
  • Modern Society: Christian Churches condemn racism, the Church of England has its own Race and Community Relationships Committee, advising Christians about issues of racism and helping racial minorities with unemployment and imprisonment.
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Why Muslims Promote Racial Harmony

  • Allah created all humans.
  • All Muslims are part of the 'ummah', and come from every race in the world.
  • The Qur'an teaches that no race is better than any other.
  • The Prophet declared in his last sermon that there is no difference between Arabs and non-Arabs.
  • All races are loved by Allah.
  • Prophet Muhammad declared that all people were descended from Adam and Eve.
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How Muslims Promote Unity

  • Muslims pray together in Arabic.
  • Muslims from all over the world make the pilgrimage (Hajj) to the holy city.
  • All muslims fast during the month of Ramadan.
  • All Muslims pray facing Makkah.
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Malcolm X (1925-1965)

  • An African-American Muslim, who campaigned for racial equality after his family was attacked.
  • He became a minister for the radical Nation of Islam organisation and spread that a state should be established for black people alone.
  • He believed Hajj was the greatest example of racial harmony.
  • He continued to campaign for racial equality after leaving the Nation of Islam.
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Benefits of a Multi-faith Society

  • Greater tolerance and understanding of the beliefs of others.
  • Varied and rich cultural life from experiencing the religions and traditions of others.
  • Better understanding of different viewpoints.
  • New ways of living and enjoying life.
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Challenges of a Multi-faith Society

  • Not always easy to be open and understanding towards the views of others.
  • Religious persecution and hatred.
  • Religious tension exists between different faith groups.
  • Beliefs and values of some groups may be ignored.
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Viewpoints About a Multi-faith Society

  • Exclusivism:
    Only one religion is right and all others are wrong, members of the 'right' faith should try to convert all others.
  • Inclusivism:
    Only one religion is completely right, other religions may lead to God and should be respected, but followers should be 'encouraged' to change faith.
  • Religious Pluralism:
    Many different religions lead to God and each one should be fully respected and treated equally.
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Issues Within Multi-faith Societies

  • Conversion: 
    Where one group of believers try to convert another to their faith, which could cause conflict.
  • Interfaith Marriage:
    Two members of different religions get married, this could cause conflict between their families, with different beliefs and values.
  • Raising Children:
    Both parents may want their children raised within their own faith, a mixture of beliefs could lead to confusion.
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How Religion Helps Community Cohesion

  • Religious groups, such as the Council of Christians and Jews and the Interfaith Network, who work together to open discussions and heal divisions between faiths.
  • Sharing basic understandings that God created all humans equal.
  • Celebration of festivals and worship where different faiths take part, shows respect and unity for each other.
  • Muslim Council of Britain encourages Muslims to take an active role in UK society.
  • Encouraging representation of different faith groups in jobs such as police, allowing good role models and unity.
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Bolton Christian Community Cohesion Project

  • Education and Youth:
    Provides a free family fun day for diverse communities.
  • Leisure:
    A 'night cafe' project that provides a safe place for people to go and addresses issues of antisocial behaviour.
  • Workplace: 
    Supports hospitals, the university and town centres from the Bolton community.
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How Media Presents Community Cohesion Issues

  • News Programmes: Present issues of public concern but should not encourage racism or ill feeling.
  • Discussion Programmes: Many TV debates have religious themes, e.g. about blasphemy.
  • Soap Operas: Often used to promote understanding or to air an issue that is highlighted in society.
  • Television Documentaries: Programmes such as 'Everyman', 'Witness' and 'Panorama' deal with controversy.
  • Radio: Stations such as 'Radio 4' or one-off programmes deal with religious and community themes.
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What Issues are Represented in Media

  • Racial prejudice and tension.
  • Religious tolerance.
  • Religious families coming to terms with being in a community without compromising their beliefs.
  • Religious and community themes.
  • Domesitc violence or attitudes towards women.
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