Religion and Society - Peace and Conflict

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The United Nations

WHY THE UN IS IMPORTANT FOR WORLD PEACE

  • IMPOSES SANCTIONS E.G. STOPPING TRADE ON COUNTRIES THREATENING WORLD PEACE
  • AUTHORISING USE OF FORCE BY MEMBER STATES TO STOP AN AGRESSOR
  • SENDING UN PEACE KEEPING FORCE TO:
  • - PREVENT OUTBREAK OF CONFLICT OR SPILL OVER CONFLICT ACROSS BORDERS
  • - STABILISE CONFLICT AFTER CEASEFIRE - CREATE ENVIRONMENT FOR PARTIES TO REACH LASTING PEACE AGREEMENT
  • - ASSIST ON PUTTING PEACE AGREEMENTS INTO PRACTICE
  • - LEAD STATES TO STABLE GOVERNMENT BASED ON DEMOCRATIC PRINCIPLES AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT AFTER BEING IN CONFLICT

 

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Example of UN Peace Efforts - Kosovo

EXAMPLE OF UN'S WORK FOR PEACE - KOSOVO

  • UN FEILD MISSION TO KOSOVO - PLACE IN EU - BECAME PART OF YUGOSLAVIA AFTER WWI
  • COLLAPSE OF YUGOSLAVIA IN 1980'S - KOSOVO BECAME PART OF SERBIA - MILOSEVEK STRIPPED KOSOVO OF IT'S AUTONOMY IN 1989 - KOSOVIANS STARTED PASSIVE RESISTANCE MOVEMENT IN 1990'S BUT FAILED TO SECURE INDEPENDANCE OR RESTORE AUTONOMY
  • MID 1990'S - ETHNIC ALBANIAN GEURRILLA MOVEMENT, THE KOSOVO LIBERATION ARMY, BEGAN ATTACK ON SERB TARGETS
  • SERBIAN ARMY SENT TO KOSOVO - BEGIN ETHNIC CLEANSING AGAINST KOSOVO ALBANIANS - THOUSANDS FLED TO ALBANIA - THOUSANDS DIED IN CONFLICT
  • MILOSEVIK REJECTED INTERNATIONALLY BROKERED DEAL TO END CRISIS - NATO BEGAN BOMBING CAMPAIGN IN 1999 - UN TOOK OVER ADMINISSTRATION OF PROVINCE
  • UN SENT PEACEKEEPING FORCE TO KEEP SERBIANS OUT OF KOSOVO AND KOSOVAR MILITIAS OUT OF SERBIAN PARTS OF KOSOVO - PRESERVED INDEPENDANCE AND PROTECTED SERB COMMUNITIES
  • ADMINISTRATORS WORKED WITH KOSOVIAN POLOTICIANS - ESTABLISHED POLITICAL PARTIES - HELPED DEMOCRACY DEVELOP - KOSOVO DECLARED INDEPENDANT IN 2008
  • LEAD UN TO DOWNGRADE MISSION - ENABLE EU TO HELP KOSOVO BECOME INDEPENDANT, DEMOCRATIC
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Religious Organisations

HOW RELIGIOUS ORGANISATIONS WORK FOR WORLD PEACE

  • ORGANISING PUBLIC DEBATES ON HORRORS OF WAR - ECOURAGING FOLLOWERS TO SUPPORT POLITICAL PARTIES OPPOSING WAR - COULD BRING ABOUT WORLD PEACE BECAUSE THE MORE PEOPLE LEARN ABOUT HORRORS OF WAR, THE MORE LIKELY THEY ARE TO VOTE FOR PEACE
  • MAKING PUBLIC STATEMENTS AND ORGANISING PROTESTS ABOUT WAR SUCH AS CONDEMNING THE DARFUR CONFLICT - PUBLIC OPINION COULD BE CHANGED AND GOVERNMENT TAKE NOTICE OF PUBLIC OPINION
  • ORGANISING AND ATTENDING INTERFAITH CONFERENCES TO HELP ALL RELIGIONS WORK TOGETHER TO PROMOTE WORLD PEACE - MANY CONFLICTS CAUSED BY RELIGIOUS DIFFERENCES - RELIGIONS WORK TOGETHER FOR PEACE, PEACE MORE LIKELY TO HAPPEN
  • WORKING FOR ECONOMIC JUSTICEAND GLOBAL RECOGNITION OF HUMAN RIGHTS TO REMOVE CAUSES OF WAR - GROUPS LIKE CHRISTIAN AID HELP TO GIVE POOR DECENT STANDARD OF LIVING IT COULD REMOVE MAJOR CAUSES OF WAR - PERSUADE GOVERNMENTS TO RESPECT HUMAN RIGHTS - STOP WARS THAT STARTED BECAUSE A COUNTRY FEELS IT'S FELLOW ETHNIC GROUP IS BEING BADLY TREATED
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Why Wars Occur

RELIGION

  • COUNTRY MAY THAT ANOTHER COUNTRY IS TRATING FOLLOWERS OF THEIR RELIGON BADLY SO INVADE COUNTRY TO PROTECT FELLOW RELIGIONISTS E.G. BOSNIA AND KOSOVO IN 1990'S - SERBIANS INVADED BECAUSE THEIR FELLOW AUTHODOX CHRISTIANS WERE BEING TREATED BADLY BY MUSLIM MAJORITY
  • DIFFERENCES WITHIN A RELIGION OR RELIGIOUS GROUP AND ONE RELIGIOUS GROUP ATTACKS OTHER FOR HAVING DIFFERENT BELIEFS E.G. WAR BETWEEN TALEBAN VIEW AND AFGAN GOVERNMENT VIEW OF ISLAM

NATIONALISM AND ETHNICITY

  • ONE FORM OF NATIONALISM - BELIEF THAT EACH SEPERATE ETHNIC GROUP SHOULD HAVE IT'S OWN COUNTRY BECAUSE IT HAS A DIFFERENT CULTURE - LEADS MINORITY ETHNIC GROUPS TO FIGHT IN CIVIL WARS TO ESTABLISH INDEPENDANT STATE E.G. TAMIL TIGERSIN SRI LANKA AND THE ETHNIC ALBANIANS IN KOSOVO
  • ANOTHER FORM OF NATIONALISM - INSIST THAT ETHNIC MINORITY GROUPS SHOULD BE REMOVED FROM COUNTRY - E.G. TUTSIS IN ROWANDA 1994
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Why Wars Occur

ECONOMICS

  • IRAQ INVADED BECAUSE WEST WANTED TO ENSURE ACCESS TO ENORMOUS OIL RESERVES
  • ECONOMIC PROBLEMS OF ONE COUNTRY COULD LEAD TO PROBLEMS IN ANOTHER COUNTRY E.G. ECONOMIC CRISIS IN ZIMBABWA LEAD TO MASS MIGRATION OF REFUGEES LOOKING FOR FOOD AND WORK IN SOUTH AFRICA - SOME SOUTH AFRICANS OPPOSED THIS AND BEGUN TO ATTACK REFUGEES

IDEOLOGICAL AND POLITICAL DIFFERENCES

  • KOREAN WAR BEGAN IN 1949 WHEN NK INVADED SK WITH AIM OF UNITING COUNTRY UNDER COMMUNISM - TRUCE DECLARED IN 1953 WHEN UN FAUGHT WAR AGAINST NK AND CHINA - STILL NO PEACE AND CONFLICTS STILL BREAK OUT
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Nature and Importance of Just War

GENERALLY AGREED THAT WAR IS JUST IF

  • CAUSE OF WAR IS JUST E.G. SELF DEFENSE AGAINST GREAT INJUSTICE LIKE GENOCIDE
  • IT IS BEING FOUGHT BY THE AUTHORITY OF THE UNITED NATIONS
  • IT IS BEING FOUGHT WITH THE INTENTION OF RESTORING PEACE
  • BEGUN AS LAST RESORT - ALL NON-VIOLENT METHODS OF TRYING TO END CONFLICT FAILED
  • REASONABLE CHANCE OF SUCCESS - NO LOSS OF LIFE FOR NO WORTHWHILE REASON
  • METHODS USED AVOID KILLING CIVILIANS - BANS ANY METHODS THAT AIM TO SCARE CIVILIANS OR DELIBERATELY TRY TO DESTRY CIVILIAN TARGETS
  • METHODS USED ARE PROPORTIONAL TO CAUSE - E.G. NOT JUST TO USE NUCLEAR BOMB ON COUNTRY THAT INVADED A SMALL ISLAND
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War - Christian Beliefs

REASONS FOR SOME CHRISTIANS BEING PACIFIST

  • SERMON ON THE MOUNT - JESUS TAUGHT THAT CHRISTIANS SHOULD NOT RESIST EVIL - "IF YOU ARE HIT ON THE RIGHT CHEEK, TURN AND OFFER THEM YOUR LEFT"
  • SERMON - JESUS TAUGHT CHRISTIANS TO "LOVE YOUR ENEMIES"
  • JESUS STOPPED PETER FROM USING VIOLENCE WHEN SOLDIERS CAME TO ARREST HIM - "ALL WHO DRAW THE SWORD DIE BY THE SWORD"
  • FIFTH COMMANDMENT - "THOU SHALT NOT KILL"

REASONS FOR OTHER CHRISTIANS ACCEPTING JUST WAR

  • TEACHING OF ALL THE MAIN CHURCHES (CATHOLIC, METHODIST, BAPTIST ETC.) THAT CHRISTIANS HAVE THE RIGHT TO FIGHT IN WARS THAT FULFILL JUST WAR CRITERIA
  • JESUS NEVER CONDEMNED SOLDIERS HE MET - ACCEPTED RIGHT OF CHRISTIAN SOLDIERS
  • JESUS ASKED ABOUT PAYING TAXES - 'GIVE CEASAR WHAT IS CEASARS" - MUST MEAN IT'S ACCEPTABLE FOR CHRISTIAN TO FIGHT IN JUST WAR APPROVED BY GOVERNMENT (CEASAR)
  • ST PAUL IN ROMANS 13 - CHRISTIANS HAVE TO OBEY ORDERS OF GOVERNMENTS - GOVERNMENTS AUTHORISED BY GOD - UN AUTHORISES WAR, CHRISTIANS SHOULD FIGHT IN IT
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War - Muslim Beliefs

WHY MOST MUSLIMS BELIEVE THAT A WAR SHOULD BE FAUGHT IF IT IS JUST

  • QUR'AN SAYS MUSLIMS MUST FIGHT IF THEY ARE ATTACKED - QUR'AN IS WORD OF ALLAH
  • MUHUMMAD - PERFECT EXAMPLE FOR HOW MUSLIMS LIVE THEIR LIVES - HE FOUGHT IN JUST WAR
  • MUHAMMAD MADE MANY STATEMENTS ABOUT JUST WAR - MUHAMMAD IS FINAL PROPHET OF GOD - MUSLIMS MUST FOLLOW TEACHINGS
  • QUR'AN SAYS THAT ANYONE WHO DIES FIGHTING IN A JUST WAR WILL GO STRAIGHT TO HEAVEN - REASSURANCE THAT THE WAR IS GOD'S WILL AND THEY SHOULD FIGHT IT
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Bullying - Christian Beliefs

WHY CHRISTIANS ARE AGAINST BULLYING

  • VIOLENCE WITHOUT CAUSE IS SINFUL - BULLYING INVOLVES USING VIOLENCE 
  • ALL HUMANS ARE MADE IN GODS IMAGE - BULLYING IS MISTREATING GOD'S CREATION
  • THE GOLDEN RULE
  • PARABLE OF SHEEP AND GOATS - JESUS TAUGHT THAT EVERYONE SHOULD TREAT THOSE IN TROUBLE AS IF THEY WERE JESUS
  • HARMFUL EFFECTS ON SOCIETY - VICTIMS LIKELY TO BE PREVENTED FROM ACHEIVING CAREERS - CHRISTIANS SHOULD ALWAYS TRY TO BETTER SOCIETY
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Bullying - Muslim Beliefs

WHY ALL MUSLIMS THINK BULLYING IS WRONG

  • ISLAMIC SOCIETY BASED ON RULE OF MUTUAL RESPECT BETWEEN MEMBERS OF THAT SOCIETY - BULLIES HAVE NO RESPECT FOR VICTIM
  • ISLAM REGARDS USING VIOLENCE WITHOUT A JUST CAUSE AS SINFUL - BULLYING IS VIOLENCE WITHOUT JUST CAUSE
  • ALL MUSLIMS MEMBERS OF UMMUH - SHOULD TREAT EVERYONE LIKE BROTHERS
  • MUHAMMAD - "EVERY MUSLIM IS A BROTHER TO EVERY MUSLIM"
  • QUR'AN TEACHES DUTY OF MUSLIM TO PROTECT WEAK AND INNOCENT - ALL MUST STRIVE TO CONDEMN BULLYING
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Religious Conflicts in Families

CHILDREN NO LONGER WANTING TO TAKE PART IN PARENTS RELIGION

  • RELIGIONS USUALLY TELL PARENTS IT'S THEIR DUTY TO RAISE CHILDREN IN FAITH AND ENSURE THEY BECOME LOYAL MEMBERS OF IT - PARENTS REGARDED AS FAILURES
  • PARENTS WILL WORRY THAT THEIR CHILDREN WILL BECOME IMMORAL
  • PARENTS WILL WORRY THAT CHILDREN WILL NOT BE WITH THEM IN AFTERLIFE
  • CHILDREN WILL FEEL THAT THEIR HUMAN RIGHT OF FREEDOM OF RELIGION IS BEING TAKEN AWAY BY PARENT

CHILDREN WANTING TO MARRY PARTNER FROM ANOTHER FAITH

  • NO RELIGIOUS CEREMONY - COUPLES MUST BE MEMBERS OF SAME FAITH FOR CEREMONY TO BE ALLOWED
  • WHICH RELIGION CHILDREN FROM MARRIAGE WILL BE BROUGHT UP IN
  • CONFLICT BETWEEN INLAWS ABOUT MORAL VIEWS
  • FEELING THAT PERSON HAS BETRAYED ROOTS OF FAMILY
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Religious Conflicts in Families

CHILDREN BECOMING MORE RELIGIOUS THAN PARENTS

  • CHILD WANTS LOW PAID JOB AS PREIST AFTER PARENTS SPEND A LOT OF MONEY ON EDUCATION FEES
  • CHILD CRITICISES LIFESTYLE OF PARENTS E.G. CATHOLIC CRITICISES CONTRECEPTION
  • CHILD TRIES TO FORCE PARENTS TO BE MORE RELIGIOUS E.G. READ BIBLE EVERYDAY

DISAGREEMENTS OVER MORAL ISSUES

  • CATHOLIC DECIDES TO DIVORCE - CONDEMNED BY CATHOLIC CHURCH
  • COUPLE DECIDE TO LIVE TOGETHER RATHER THAN MARRYING
  • FAMILY MEMBER HAS A AFFAIR, WRITES A PORN MAGAZING
  • FAMILY MEMBER DECIDES TO HAVE AN ABORTION EVEN THOUGH CONDEMNED BY RELIGION
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Forgiveness and Reconciliation

WHY CHRISTIANS BELIEVE IN FORGIVENESS AND RECONCILIATION

  • MOST CHRISTIANS BELIEVE THAT HUMANITY HAS BECOME SPLIT FROM GOD THROUGH SIN BUT FORGIVENESS OF SINS BROUGHT BY DEATH OF JESUS ALLOWED RECONCILIATION BETWEEN GOD AND HUMANS
  • JESUS SAID THAT IF CHRISTIANS DO NOT FORGIVE THOSE WHO HAVE SINNED AGAINST THEM, GOD WILL NOT FORGIVE THEM
  • THE GOLDEN RULE
  • WHOLE RELIGION BASED ON CONCEPT OF FORGIVENESS - CHURCHES AND BIBLE TEACHES CHRISTIANS SHOULD BE COMMITTED TO IT E.G. CATHOLIC CONFESSION SHOWS ITS IMPORTANCE TO THEM
  • ST PAUL SAID THAT CHRISTIANS SHOULD TRY AND LIVE IN PEACE WITH EVERYONE - FORGIVENESS IS ONLY WAY TO ACHEIVE PEACE ON EARTH
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Forgiveness and Reconciliation - Muslim Beliefs

WHY MUSLIMS BELIEVE IN FORGIVENESS AND RECONCILIATION

  • GOD IS COMPASSIONATE AND MERCIFUL TO SINNERS - MUSLIMS SHOULD BE TOO
  • DAY OF JUDGEMENT - THOSE WHO HAVE FORGIVEN OTHERS WILL GO TO PARADISE
  • QUARAN SAYS PEOPLE SHOULD FORGIVE OTHERS SINS - QURAN IS WORD OF GOD
  • MANY HADITH FROM PROPHET MUHAMMAD ABOUT FORGIVING THOSE WHO HAVE OFFENDED OTHERS - MUHAMMAD PERFECT EXAMPLE TO MUSLIMS
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