RELIGION AND LIFE: MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH

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Life After Death - Christian Beliefs

RESSURECTION OF THE BODY

  • PROTESTANTS - WHEN YOU DIE, SOUL REMAINS IN BODY UNTIL THE LAST DAY, WHEN JESUS WILL RETURN TO EARTH AND THE DEAD WILL BE RAISED AND GIVEN RESSURECTION BODIES
  • EVERYONE WILL APPEAR BEFORE GOD FOR FINAL JUDGEMENT, BASED ON ACTIONS AND BELIEFS WHEN LIVING
  • THIS WILL DETERMINE WHETHER THEY GO TO HEAVEN OR HELL

IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL

  • HUMANS ARE MADE UP OF BODY AND SOUL - SOUL IS NON MATERIAL AND IMMORTAL
  • SOME CHRISTIANS BELIEVE THAT HEAVEN OR HELL DEPENDS ON BELIEFS
  • OTHERS THINK IT DEPENDS ON ACTIONS AND THAT EVERYONE, CHRISTIAN OR NOT, CAN GO TO HEAVEN
  • SOME BELIEVE THAT THERE IS NO HELL AND EVERYONE HAS THE CHANCE TO LEARN FROM MISTAKES THROUGH BEING UNITED WITH GOD
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Life After Death - Christian Reasons

REASONS FOR BELIEF IN RESSURECTION OF THE BODY

  • JESUS' BODY WAS RAISED FROM THE DEAD
  • ST. PAUL TEACHES THAT PEOPLE WILL HAVE A RESSURECTION LIKE THAT OF JESUS'
  • JOHN THE DIVINE TEACHES IN REVELATION THAT THE DEAD WILL BE RAISED AND BROUGHT BEFORE GOD FOR JUDGEMENT AT THE END OF THE WORLD
  • JESUS SAID THAT HE WOULD COME AGAIN
  • CREEDS SAY THAT JESUS WILL JUDGE THE LIVING DEAD

REASONS FOR BELIEF IN IMMORTALITY OF THE SOUL

  • JESUS BECAME A SPIRIT
  • GOSPELS REFERENCE TO MOSES COMMUNICATING WITH GOD
  • THERE SEEMS TO BE SOMETHING IMMORTAL ABOUT HUMAN MIND
  • EVIDENCE OF PARANORMAL 
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Life after Death - Christian Lives

REASONS FOR BELIEF IN LIFE AFTER DEATH

  • THE BIBLE, THE CREEDS THE CHURCH TEACHES THAT THERE IS LIFE AFTER DEATH
  • LIFE AFTER DEATH GIVES A MEANING AND PURPOSE TO LIFE

CHRISTIAN RESPONSES TO BELIEFS

  • MENTAL - FEELING OF COMFORT WHEN LOVED ONES DIE THAT THEY ARE STILL THERE
    • FEELING OF PURPOSE IN LIFE - STRIVING TO DO GOOD SO THEY CAN GO TO HEAVEN
  • ACTIONS - CONFESSION - REPENT FOR THEIR SINS
    • PRAYER - COMMUNICATING FREQUENTLY WITH GOD
    • DOING GOOD WORK - THEY KNOW GOD IS WATCHING THEM AND THAT THEY WILL BE REWARDED FOR GOOD DEEDS
    • VOCATION - DEDICATING LIVES TO GOD THROUGH JOBS SUCH AS DOCTORS (TO HELP OTHERS), PREISTS
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Life After Death - Non Religious Beliefs

NEAR DEATH EXPERIENCES

HAPPENS WHEN PEOPLE ARE CLINICALLY DEAD FOR A PERIOD OF TIME - DESCRIBE LEAVING THEIR BODIES AND SEEING THEMSELVES OUTSIDE THE BODY - SOME PEOPLE REPORT SEEING DEAD RELATIVES OR A LIGHT

PARANORMAL ACTIVITY - UNEXPLAINED EVENTS THOUGHT TO HAVE A SPIRITUAL CAUSE

GHOSTS - SPIRITS OF DEAD PEOPLE WHO HAVE NOT GONE ONTO THE NEXT PLACE - EVIDENCE IS A PHYSICAL PRESENCE THAT CANNOT BE SEEN OR A FEELING OF SOMETHING IN A ROOM WITH YOU

MEDIUMS - PEOPLE THAT CLAIM TO BE ABLE TO CONTACT THE DEAD - YOU CAN ATTEND MEETINGS WHERE YOU SEE THIS HAPPEN - MANY TV PROGRAMS ABOUT IT

REINCARNATION

BELIEF THAT A PERSONS SOUL IS REBORN INTO ANOTHER BODY AFTER DEATH - EVIDENCE - DEJA VU, BABY WITH TAIL LIKE HINDU GOD BELIEVED TO BE REINCARNATION OF GOD

OTHER REASONS

FIND DEATH DIFFICULT TO DEAL WITH, WANTING TO FEEL THAT DEAD LOVED ONES ARE STILL WITH THEM, WANT TO BE REWARDED - FEEL THAT IT MAKES A FAIRER WORLD

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Life After Death - Non Belief

EVIDENCE

NO EVIDENCE OF AN AFTERLIFE - NO ONE HAS EVER BEEN ALIVE TO PROVE IT EXISTS - MEDIUMS THAT TRY TO PROVE THERE IS AN AFTERLIFE ARE TRICKING PEOPLE - ALL EVIDENCE FOR AFTERLIFE IS BASED ON ASUMPTIONS

MORTAL HUMANS

THE BODY DECAYS WHEN WE DIE - THERE IS NO POSSIBILITY OF LIVING AFTER DEATH

SCIENCE

LIFE AFTER DEATH IS NOT SCIENTIFICALLY POSSIBLE AND SCIENCE EXPLAINS EVERYTHING ON EARTH - THERE IS NOWHERE FOR LIFE AFTER DEATH TO TAKE PLACE

RELIGION IS OUTDATED

BELIEFS IN HEAVEN AND GOD ARE OUTDATED - IF THERE IS NO GOD THERE CANNOT BE AN AFTERLIFE

DIFFERENT RELIGIONS HAVE DIFFERENT BELIEFS

IF THERE WAS AN AFTERLIFE, EVERYONE WOULD THINK THE SAME THING BECAUSE IT WOULD BE FACT

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Abortion

THE 1976 ABORTION ACT - UK LAW ON ABORTION

  • ABORTIONS ALLOWED UP TO 24 WEEKS IF - IT'S AGREED BY TWO DOCTORS, THERES A PHYSICAL OR MENTAL RISK TO WOMENS HEALTH, ANY EXISTING CHILDREN WOULD SUFFER OR BE IN DANGER, THE CHILD BORN WOULD BE SEVERELY DISABLED
  • ABORTIONS ALLOWED AFTER 24 WEEKS IF - RISK TO THE MOTHERS LIFE, BABY WILL BE SEVERELY DEFORMED, RISK OF SERIOUS PHYSICAL OR MENTAL INJURY TO WOMEN

ARGUMENTS FOR ABORTION 

  • IT'S THE WOMANS BODY AND SHE CAN DO WHAT SHE WISHES
  • KINDER TO CHILD IF THEY WILL BE SEVERELY DISABLED
  • BABIES HAVE THE RIGHT TO BE LOVED, CARED FOR - WOMEN CANNOT ALWAYS PROVIDE THIS E.G. RAPE 

ARGUMENTS AGAINST ABORTION

  • LIFE BEGINS AT CONTRECEPTION - EMBREO HAS POTENTIAL TO BE A HUMAN AND A RIGHT TO LIFE - EVEN DISABLED CHILDREN HAVE THE RIGHT TO LIFE
  • ADOPTION IS AN ALTERNATIVE
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Abortion - Christian Beliefs

ARGUMENTS FOR ABORTION

  • THE GOLDEN RULE - ABORTION MAY BE THE MOST LOVING THING IF THE BABY WILL BE DISABLED
  • SANCTITY OF LIFE CAN BE BROKEN WITH THINGS LIKE JUST WAR, SO WHY NOT WITH ABORTION?
  • ACCEPT TECHNOLOGICAL ADVANCES IN MEDICINE - ALLOWS US TO IDENTIFY PROBLEMS WITH FEOTUS
  • JUSTICE - IF ABORTION WAS BANNED, RICH PEOPLE WOULD PAY FOR THEM IN OTHER COUNTRIES - UNJUST

ARGUMENTS AGAINST ABORTION

  • SANCTITY OF LIFE - LIFE IS HOLY AND BELONGS TO GOD - "GOD CREATED MAN IN HIS OWN IMAGE"
  • TEN COMMANDMENTS - "THOU SHALL NOT KILL" - ABORTION IS AN EXAMPLE OF TAKING A LIFE
  • LIFE BEGINS AT CONTRECEPTION - ABORTION IS THEREFORE TAKING A LIFE
  • EVERYONE HAS A NATURAL RIGHT TO LIFE - FEOTUS IS A POTENTIAL PERSON - DENYINE RIGHT TO LIFE
  • 'YOUR BODY IS A TEMPLE OF THE HOLY SPIRIT' - DESTROYING BODY IS DESTROYING GODS TEMPLE
  • CATHOLIC CHURCH TEACHES THAT ABORTION IS WRONG
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Euthanasia

LAW ON EUTHANASIA IN THE UK

ALL FORMS ILLEGAL - SWITCHING OFF A LIFE SUPPORT MACHINE FOR A PATIENT WHO IS BRAIN DEAD IS NOT CONSIDERED EUTHANASIA AND IS LEGAL 

CONCEPTS OF EUTHANASIA

  • DOCTRINE OF DOUBLE EFFECT - IDEA THAT SOMEONE CANNOT BE BLAMED FOR SECOND EFFECT IF THEIR ACTIONS HAVE TWO - IF THEY GIVE A BIG DOSE OF PAINKILLER TO SOMEONE WITH AN ILLNESS WHCIH KILLS THEM, THE PERSON CANNOT BE BLAMED FOR THEM DYING BECAUSE THE INTENTION WAS TO RELEIVE THE SUFFERERS PAIN
  • STRIVING TO KEEP ALIVE - IDEA THAT DOCTORS MUST DO EVERYTHING POSSIBLE TO KEEP DYING PATIENT ALIVE
  • QUALITY OF LIFE - LIFE IS NOT WORTH LIVING IF ILLNESS MEANS THAT IT HAS NO QUALITY
  • LOSS OF HUMAN DIGNITY - IF HUMANS HAVE NO DIGNITY E.G. NO CONTROL OF BODILY FUNCTIONS, THEY HAVE NO QUALITY OF LIFE
  • THE RIGHT TO DIE - BASIC HUMAN RIGHT IS TO HAVE CONTROL OF WHEN TO END YOUR LIFE
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Euthanasia - Christian Beliefs

REASONS FOR MOST CHRISTIANS BEING AGAINST EUTHANASIA (APART FROM SWITCHING OFF LIFE SUPPORT)

  • SANCTITY OF LIFE - LIFE CREATED BY AND SACRED TO GOD - EUTHANASIA PUTS ONE ON A PAR WITH GOD - CONDEMNED BY BIBLE
  • REGARD EUTHANASIA AS FORM OF MURDER - "THOU SHALL NOT KILL"
  • IF SOMEONE IS BRAIN DEAD, THEY'VE ALREADY DIED - SWITCHING OFF LIFE MACHINE IS ACCEPTING WHAT GOD HAS ALREADY DECIDED
  • SHOULDN'T BE ABLE TO MAKE DECISIONS ABOUT ANYONE ELSES LIFE

REASONS FOR SOME CHRISTIANS BEING COMPLETELY AGAINST EUTHANASIA

  • TAKE BIBLE TEACHINGS LITERALLY - BIBLE BANS SUICIDE
  • REGARD SWITCHING OFF LIFE SUPPORT AS A FORM OF MURDER

REASONS FOR SOME CHRISTIANS BEONG MORE ACCEPTING

  • SUPPORT VIEW THAT GOD INTENDS PEOPLE TO HAVE A GOOD QUALITY OF LIFE - EUTHANASIA IS SOMETIMES LESSER OF TWO EVILS
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Euthanasia - Non Religious Beliefs

ARGUMENTS FOR EUTHANASIA

  • ADVANCES IN MEDICINE LEAD TO PEOPLE STAYING ALIVE WHEN THEY WOULDN'T HAVE DONE SO BEFORE
  • DEVELOPMENT OF LIFE SUPPORT MACHINE, DOCTORS DECISION TO STOP TREATMENT - FORM OF EUTHANASIA
  • BASIC HUMAN RIGHT TO HAVE CONTROL OVER ENDING OWN LIFE, ESPECIALLY IF QUALITY IS POOR

ARGUMENTS AGAINST EUTHUNASIA

  • RELATIVES MAY REQUEST EUTHANASIA OF RICH PEOPLE IN ORDER TO GAIN FROM WILLS
  • A CURE MAY BE FOUND FOR SUFFERERS ILLNESS
  • DOCTORS SHOULD BE SAVING LIVES NOT ENDING THEM
  • SANCTITY OF LIFE - LIFE IS SACRED AND SHOULD NOT BE ENDED
  • PEPLE MAY NOT BE IN THEIR RIGHT MIND WHEN THEY ASK FOR EUTHANASIA
  • SLIPPERY SLOPE - IF EUTHUNASIA WAS MADE LEGAL, IT WOULD LEAD TO OTHER THINGS BEING MADE LEGAL THAT WOULD LESSEN THE VALUE OF LIFE
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World Poverty - Causes

  • WARS - E.G. CIVIL WAR IN AFRICA CAUSED BY EUROPEAN EMPIRE BUILDING IN 19TH CENTURY - COUNTRIES LIKE SOMALIA CONSTRUCTED, EXPANDED AND REDUCED BY EUROPEANS - NO THOUGHT GIVEN TO ETHNIC LINKS,LANGUAGE OR GRAZING RIGHTS - ETHNIC GROUPS ARTIFICIALLY PUT TOGETHER IN A COUNTRY - CIVIL WAR ENSUED AS VARIOUS ETHNIC GROUPS FOUGHT FOR CONTROL
    • DESTROYS CROPS, HOMES, SCHOOL - FORCES PEOPLE TO LEAVE HOMES TO BECOME REFUGEES IN SAFER COUNTRY - INFLUX OF REFUGEES TO DEVELOPING COUNTRIES CAN MAKE THEM POOR
  • DEBT - LEDC'S BURROW MONEY FROM MEDC'S WHO THEN CHARGE INTEREST - CAUSES DEBT TO BUILD UP
    • E.G. IN 1970'S CHILE BURROWED 3.9 BILLION DOLLARS - BY 1982 HAD PAID 12.8 BILLION INTEREST
    • SINCE 1990, INTEREST POOR COUNTRIES HAVE TO PAY RICH COUNTRIES RISEN FROM 7.4 TO 10.3 BILLION
  • NATURAL DISASTERS - LEDC'S SITUATED IN AREAS PRONE TO NATURAL DISASTERS 
    • E.G. EARTHQUAKES DESTROY HOMES, FARMLAND - CAUSES STARVATION, HOMELESSNESS
  • AIDS - DISEASE SWEEPING LEDC'S AND KILLING MANY
    • 1/4 OF ALL CHILDREN IN SOUTH AFRICA LOSE PARENTS TO AIDS - LEAVES THEM WITH NO MEANS OF EARNING MONEY
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Poverty - What Christian Aid Do

  • FUND-RAISING - SINCE 1957, CHRISTIAN AID WEEK ORGANISED AS NATION WIDE EVENT IN MAY EACH YEAR - CHURCHES PUT INFORMATION SHEET ABOUT CHRISTIAN AID IN EVERY HOUSE OF ALLOCATED TOWN - 2004 - CHRISTIAN AID WEEK RAISED £15 MILLION
    • CHURCHES AND INDIVIDUALS HAVE FUND RAISING EVENTS THROUGHOUT YEAR
  • EMERGENCY AID - FUNDS TO DEAL WITH EMERGENCIES E.G. DISPLACED PEOPLE IN SUDAN - TAKES PLACE ALONGSIDE LONG TERM AID
    • INCLUDES SENDING FOOD, ANTIBIOTICS, SHELTERS TO THOSE EXPERIENCING DISASTERS LIKE EARTHQUAKES, WAR, GENOCIDE AND DROUGHTS
  • LONG-TERM AID - CHANNELED THROUGH ORGANISATIONS IN COUNTRY CONCERNED - LOCAL GROUPS COME UP WITH IDEAS FOR LONG TERM AID - ASK CHRISTIIAN AID FOR SUPPORT
    • E.G. AFGHANISTAN - CHRISTIAN AID SUPPORTED SCHEME TO INCREASE WHEAT PRODUCTION AND SHARE OUT HARVEST FAIRLY - ENABLES FARMERS TO FEED FAMILIES ALL YEAR ROUND
  • EDUCATION - 5% OF CHRISTIAN AIDS BUDGET - SPENT ON EDUCATING PEOPLE IN CHURCHES IN UK ABOUT NEED FOR DEVELOPMENT AND WAYS PEOPLE CAN HELP LEDC'S
    • E.G. CHRISTIAN AID NEWS - GIVES INFO ABOUT WORLD DEVELOPMENT E.G. WHAT THE WORLD SPENDS ON ARMS IN TWO WEEKS WOULD GIVE THE WORLD ENOUGH FOOD AND WATER FOR A YEAR
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The Media

EASTENDERS - LUCY'S ABORTION - LUCY WAS 16 AND PREGNANT BUT PLANNING TO GIVE BABY TO JANE WHO COULD NOT HAVE CHILDREN - EVENTUALLY DECIDED TO TERMINATE PREGNANCY IN SECRET - TOLD JANE SHE HAD A MISCARRIAGE

SHOULD MEDIA BE FREE TO CRITICISE WHAT RELIGIONS SAY ABOUT MATTERS OF LIFE AND DEATH?

  • YES - FREEDOM OF SPEECH - HUMAN RIGHT - FREE TO SAY WHAT THEY BELIEVE
    • JUST BECAUSE THEY'RE CRITICISING WHAT RELIGIONS SAY DOESN'T MEAN THEY'RE CRITICISING THE RELIGION AS A WHOLE
    • SOME RELIGIONS HOLD CONTROVERSIAL BELIEFS E.G. ISLAM AND THE DEATH PENALTY
    • NOT EVERYONE HOLDS THE SAME OPINION ON EVERYTHING
  • NO - RIGHT NOT TO BE SEGREGATED AGAINST - CONDEMNING PEOPLE FOR A BELIEF
    • NO ONE HAS THE RIGHT TO QUESTION GOD
    • IT IS UNFAIR TO CONDEMN A RELIGION WHEN YOU ARE NOT PART OF IT AND UNEDUCATED ABOUT IT
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