RE paper 1, section 3

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  • Adultery - a sexual act between a married person and another person
  • Civil partnership - legal ceremony giving a homosexual couple the same legal rights as a husband and wife.
  • Cohabitation - Living together without being married.
  • Contraception - Intentionally preventing a pregnancy from occurring.
  • Faithfulness - Staying with your marriage partner and only having sex with them.
  • Homosexuality - Sexual attraction to the same sex,
  • Nuclear family - Mother, father and children living as a unit.
  • pre-marital sex - Sex before marriage.
  • Procreation - Making a new life.
  • Promiscuity -  Having sex with a number of partners without commitment,
  • Re-constituted family - Where 2 sets of children (step-brothers/sisters) become 1 family when their divorced parents marry each other.
  • Re-marriage - Marrying again after being divorced from a previous partner.
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Changed attitudes

  • UK 1960's expected sex to only happen within a marriage, most married in a church as a young age forever. Families were nuclear and male homosexuality was a criminal offense.
  • Mose people have sex before marriage
  • Most couple live together without marriage, and many children are bough up by cohabiting parents.
  • Average age for marriage has increased
  • Most marriages don't take place in church
  • Divorce is accepted
  • Many divorces leas to single-parent families and re-constituted families.
  • There are more extended families as more mothers are paid in employment.
  • Society treats homosexuals the same an heterosexuals
  • Two people of the same sex can now form a legal union signing a registration document in a civil partnership, giving them the same rights and treatment ad opposite sex married couples.
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View change on cohabitation/marriage and divorce

Cohabitation and marriage:

  • Effective contraception makes it safer to have sex before marriage.
  • fewer people go to Church, so they were not encouraged to keep sex until after marriage.
  • The media and celebrities make cohabitation look respectable so it become more popular.
  • The media shows sexual relationships outside of marriage, so more people saw it as normal/acceptable.


  • New laws make divorce much cheaper and easier for ordinary people.
  • Increased equality for women means women wont stand to be treated badly.
  • Most married women did depend on mans wages, now they are independent and can support themselves.
  • The length of time people stay tgoether after marriage has decreased from 100 years to 10.
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View change on family life and homosexuality

Family life:

  • As cohabitation become popular more families were parents before getting married.
  • The increase in divorce lead to an increase in re-marriage and re-constituted families.
  • More mothers are paid in employments and use retired grandparents/close relatives to look after children.
  • Increase in divorce and the acceptance of unmarried mothers means there are more single-parent families.


  • Changes in the laws made it easier to be openly homosexual and made society more aware.
  • Medical research has shown that its natural, leading to acceptance and equal status/rights for homosexual couples.
  • media coverage of gay celebrities has led to a greater acceptance of all gay people.
  • The work of gay rights organisations has led to a greater acceptance of equal right for homosexuals.
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Christian attitudes towards pre-marital sex

  • Most Christians believe sex outside of marriage is wrong as:
  • God gave sex for procreation and the children should be brought up in a Christian family, so sex should only take place within marriage.
  • The Bible says that sex outside of marriage is sinful
  • The Catechism says that pre-marital sex is wrong
  • All Christians are against adultery because it breaks the wedding vows.
  • Adultery is also banned by the 10 commandments, which Christians should follow,.
  • Adultery is condemned by Jesus and all Christians should follow Jesus teaching.
  • Some Christians will accept that couple may live together before marriage, but only in a long-term relationship which is leading to marriage.
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Islams attitudes towards sex outside of marriage

  • All Muslims believe that sex outside of marriage is wrong because:
  • It is forbidden by the Qur'an, which they believe is the word of God.
  • The shari'ah says that sex should only take place in marriage.
  • Islam teaches that sex if for procreation of children, who should be raised in a family where the mother and father are married.
  • Adultery is condemned by God in the Qur'an.
  • Adultery breaks the marriage contract that both husband and wife agree to.
  • Adultery is likely to hard the family, and harming the family is condemned by both God in the Qur'an and Shari'ah.
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Christians attitudes on divorce

  • Catholic church does not allow religous divorve or re-marriage. The only way a marriage between baptised catholice can be ended is by the death on one of the partners.
  • They do allow civil divorce if its better for the children, so they couple are still married in the eyes of God and therefore cant re-marry.
  • Jesus taught divorce is wrong and Christians should follow his teachings.
  • The couple have made a covenant with God which 'cannot be broken by any earthly power'.
  • The Catechism teaches that a marriage cannot be dissolved, so divorce is impossible.
  • There can be no re-marriage as there can be no religious divorce, so re-marriage would be both bigamy (having 2 husbands/wifes) and adultery,
  • However if it can be proved that the marriage was never a true Christian marriage, Catholics can have an annulment which makes them free to ore-marry.
  • Most non-catholic Christians think divorce is wrong, but allow it if the marriage has broke down and permit divorced people to re-marry, they are asked to promise that this time the marriage will be for life.
  • Jesus allowed divroce in mattew 19:9 for a partner's adultery.
  • If a marriage has broken down then it is the lesser of 2 evils.
  • If Christians repent and confess their sins they can be forgiven, this means the couple should have another chance at marriage to try and make it work this time.
  • These churched believe it is better to divorce than live in hatred and quarrel all the time.
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Islams attitudes on divorce

  • Divorce and re-marriage are allowed in Islam, but their are different attitudes
  • Most Muslims believe divorce should be allowed because:
  • The Qur'am permits divorce and sets out the terms for custody of children and care for divorced wives,
  • The Shari'ah permits divorce and has many laws about how divorce and re-marriage should operate.
  • Most Muslims believe divorce is the lesser evil than forcing a couple to live in hatred and bitterness.
  • Marriage is a contract in Islam and the contract says what is to happen if the couple divorce so it must be allowed.
  • Some Muslims would not divorce because:
  • Muhammad is reported to have said that divorce is the most hated and lawful things and they follow what he said.
  • Most marriages are arranged by families, so their is family pressure against divorce.
  • Many Muslims believe that they will be sent to hell if they harm their children, which divorce is likely to do.
  • The Qur'an teaches that families should try to rescue the marriage before divorce.
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Why family life is important to Christians

  • One of the main purposes of Christian marriage is to have children and bring them up in a Christian environment so they become good Christians.
  • Christiantiy teaches that the family was created by God 
  • Christian teaching on divorces shows that family is to important to be broken up.
  • Without the family, children would not learn the difference between right and wrong.
  • The family is very important for Christianity to continue to grow as it is the family that brings children into the faith.
  • However, Jesus taught that there are more important things than the family, which is why Catholic priests, nuns and monks leave their families to serve God.
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Why family life is important to Muslims

  • Muslim parents will be judges by God on how well that have brought up their children. If family life decides whether Muslims go to heaven or not then it must be very important.
  • The Qur'an teaches that the family was created by God as the basic unit of society, as the only place which children should be brought up.
  • Muhammad married and raised a family, so Muslims should do the same.
  • Without the family, children would not learn the difference between right and wrong.
  • the family is very important for Islam to continue to grow as its the family that brings the children into their faith.
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Christian attitudes to homosexuality

  • Catholic: Being homosexual is not a sin but homosexual sexual activity is a sing. They ask homosexuals to live without any sexual activity and are helped to do this by the sacrements of the church. The church believes it is sinful to criticies homoesexuals or attack their behaviour.
  • The Bible condemns homosexual sexual activity.
  • tradition of Church that any sexual activity should have the chance of creating children.
  • teachings of Magisterium which Catholics should believe.
  • Church teaches that people cannot help sexuality but can control sexual activity.
  • Discriminating against people because of their sexuality is like racism which is a sin.
  • Evangelical orotestan: Many believe homosexuality is a sin and they should be changed by the power of Holy spirit.
  • The Bible says homosexuality is a sin, this is the word from God.
  • Salvation of Chist can remove all sins, including homosexuality.
  • Churches teach homosexuality is wrong, eventhough some think its not.
  • Recently they have condemned homophobia and made churches wlcome homosexuals.
  • Liberal Protestan: Many welcome homosexuals in church & accept relationshops Some bless civil partnerships.
  • Bible texts condemning homosexuality should beliefs at time not word of God.
  • Christian believe in love and acceptance. Also they should be open and honest not made to tell lief.
  • Homosexual Christians feel Holy spirit approves of their homosexuality.
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Islams attitudes to homosexuality

  • Most Muslims believe homosexuality is wrong because:
  • Homosexuality is condemned by the Qur'an which is the word of God.
  • Muhammad condemned homosexuality and Muslims should follow his teachings.
  • God says int he Qur'an that marriage between and man and women is the only lawful form of sex.
  • Islam teaches that any sexual activity should have the possibility of creating children,
  • All Muslims should try to have a family, which homosexuals cant
  • Some Muslims believe homosexuality should be accepted because:
  • The believe that Islam is a religon of tolerance not hate.
  • They believe that God created and loves all people whatever their sexuality.
  • They believe that scientific evidence about homosexuality means that Gos must have made some people homosexual.
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Christians attitudes to contraception

Catholic attitude:

  • Responsible parenthood involves deciding how many children through natural methods only.
  • Pope Pius XI condemned all forms of artificial contraception and said they must not use artificial contraception and the should use natural methods. This teaching has been confirmed in the Catechism of the Catholic Church.
  • The church teaches sex should be unitive (bring the couple together) and creative (new life).
  • Some contraception's bring about a very early abortion (abortifacient).
  • Catholic churches believes artificial contraception leads to promiscuity, broken families, divorce & STDs.

Non-Catholic Christians attitudes:

  • All forms on contraception are permissible.
  • Christianity is about love and justice, contraception's improve women's heath and standard of living.
  • God created sex for enjoyment to strengthen marriage so their don't always have to be a chance to create children.
  • Nothing in the Bible forbids it.
  • In 1930, the Church of England said it can be used to limit family size.
  • Condoms are the best way to prevent HIV/AIDS.
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Islams attitudes to contraception

  • All Muslims believe that they should have children, but there are different attitudes  to whether contraception may be used to limit the number.
  • Some believe contraception should not be used at all:
  • he Qur'an says, 'You shall not kill your children for fear or want' bans contraception.
  • God created sex for having children.
  • Opposed to abortion and contraception acts as abortifacients.
  • Duty of Muslims to have large families.
  • Some believe contraception is permitted to limit numbers:
  • Muhammad permits the use of coitus interruptus as a means on contraception.
  • Qur'an says God don't place extra burdens on his followers.
  • If pregnancy risks a mother heath, contraception must be allowed as Islam puts mothers life first.
  • Muslim lawyers agree that contraception's is different from abortion and should be allowed.
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