"Turn the other cheek" (New Testament) - Forgive those who have wronged you.
"Love thy neighbour" - care for everyone even those you hate.
"Put your sword back in it's place" said Jesus "for all who draw the sword will die by the sword."
Quakers - a pacifist denomination.
"Blessed are the peacemakers for they will be called the children of God." (New Testament)
"The lord is a warrior: the lord is his name."
Roman Catholics recognise right of self defense
"Allah loves those who fight in his cause" (Qur'an)
Lesser Jihad - Violent struggle to defend Islam.
"Hate your enemy mildly, for he may become your friend one day" - We shouldn't hate and should forgive people.
"Paradise is for... those who curb their anger and forgive fellow men."
"If two parties of believers take up arms... make peace between them"
When meeting each other they say "As-salāmu ʿalaykum" meaning peace be upon you.
"And if you have to respond to an attack, respond only to the extent of the attack levelled against you."
Thervada Buddhists - Killing is always wrong.
Mahayana Buddhists - Killing is wrong however it may be necessary to save others.
"A man is not a great man because he is a warrior and kills other men."
“Let a man avoid evil deeds as a man who loves life avoids poison” (Buddha)
"Hatred does not stop hatred only love stops it." - War is not the answer.
Right action, intention etc...
Weapons of Mass Destruction
Biological - bacteria and viruses pollute food, water and atmosphere leading to disease and death.
Nuclear - nuclear radiation e.g. WW2 Hiroshima
Chemical - phosphorus causes choking, burning etc. damages environment e.g. WW1 Britain and Germany.
Campaign for Nuclear Diasarment - pressure group that produces information, visits schools and campaigns to government.
Just War vs Holy War
Just war - a war is only justified if it follows the criteria:
- A high chance of success
- Equal amount of weapons
- Must be started by authority / leader
- Must not involve innocent civilians
- For a worthy cause
- Last resort - tried all peaceful methods
- Right intention - aim for peace
- Only use amount of weapons necessary
Holy war - fight for their religion or God. It must follow the just war criteria.
Peacekeeping forces - organisations that work to create world peace.
United Nations - protects human rights in areas of conflict and aims to keep peace between countries.
NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization) - a military alliance of countries that use force to implement peace agreements.
The Geneva Summit 1955 - in the Cold War the leaders of Big 4 countries came together to begin discussions on peace.
Causes of War
To defend their country or beliefs
To stop genocide
To defend an ally
Civil war against the government
To gain or reclaim land
Pacifism - the belief that violence against other human beings is wrong
Terrorism - extremists that use violence to create fear and show their beliefs
Peace - an absence of war, harmony between people and justice for all.
Sanctity of life - Muslim and Christian belief that all life sacred and God given therefore shouldn't be destroyed.
Effects of War
Deaths and injuries
Disease and famine
Displacement - people leave as refugees
Destruction of houses and public buildings
Loss of education (No schools)
Less people working so less services
What Does War Achieve?
It can reclaim land / resources that have wrongfully been taken
Acts as a deterrent to prevent global harm
Can defend a nation under attack
Help a weaker ally
Why Will Wars Never End?
Humans are greedy and have been fighting over resources for centuries.
When all peaceful methods have been tried it is only option
Survival of the fittest
Some humans are naturally aggressive and war is inevitable
Individuals for Peace
Mohandas Ghandhi - Hindu leader of india who campaigned peacefully for indian independence from Britain and passed laws in South Africa.
Dalai Lama - Leader of Tibetan Buddhists who used peace for tibetan liberation from China. Believes all violence is wrong.