Psychology Unit 1

Revision cards for Memory, Attachment and Research Methods.

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Atkinson and Shiffrin

Multi-Store Model.


       (Decay)                             (Failure to Retrieve)

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Baddely and Hitch

Working Memory model.

                                                 Central Executive

 Visuo-Spatial Scratchpad           Episodic Buffer               Phological loop


                                                Long Term Memory

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Name 3 Studies into the accuracy of EWT

Loftus and Palmer - Leading Questions(Car crash)

Loftus - Weapon Focus/Anxiety(Knife/pen)

Valentine and Coxon - Age(Elderly and Children leading Q's)

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What are the four features of the cognitive interv





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Give 2 strategies for memory improvement.

Method of Loci

First Letter Mnemonics

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What is the Learning theory?

Classical conditioning:




Operant Conditioning:

Positive/Negative reinforcement

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What are the key features of Bowlby's evolutionary


-Critical Period

-Safe base for exploration

-Template for future relationships

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What are the 3 attachment types and their key beha

Secure - Slight distress upon seperation, relief upon return of mother

Insecure-avoidant - Little interest when seperated and reunited

Insecre-resistant - Intense distress upon seperation, seek and reject upon return

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Who studied cultural variations in attachment? wha

Van Ijzendoorn and Kroonenberg

-Mainly secure Everywhere

-More insecure-avoidant in west Germany

-More Insecure-resistant in Japan

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What is the PDD model?


Three stages when disruption of attachment occurs.

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What was Bowlby's study into disruption of attachm

44 Juvenile thieves

-Affectionless psychopaths

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Name a case study into Privation


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Name 1 study into the positive effects of daycare

Positive - Shea

Negative - Belsky and Rovine

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What is needed for a good day care?

-Staff training



-Good ratio of staff to children

-Minimal staff turnover

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What are the three experimental methods?




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Give four non-experimental methods

-Self-report(Questionnaires and interviews)



-Case Study

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Give one advantage and one disadvantage of case st

+) Lots of rich detailed data.

-) Results cannot be generalised, every case study is different.

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Name three designs

Matched Pairs - similar people in each

Independent groups - Random into each group

Repeated measures - same group multiple times

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Repeated measures risk order effects, what can ove

Counter balancing - One half of the group does one experiment, then they swap

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Give three methods of sampling




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Give an example of a directional and non direction

Directional - Listening to music will make you fall asleep faster

Non-directional - Listening to music will have an effect on how fast you fall asleep

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What is a null hypothesis?

Stating that the independent variable will have no effect on the dependent variable.

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What is a pilot study?

A small scale run of the experiment to highlight issues and make sure participants understand their role.

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What are investigator effects?

Where the presence of the experimenter affects the results i.e encouraging PP's to give a correct answer

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Give 3 ethical issues and how they can be overcome

Deception - Debrief

Informed consent - Right to withdraw

Protection from harm - confidentiality

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What does quantitative data include?

Numbers. Graphs, tables and charts.

Measures of central tendancy = Averages

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What is involved in Qualitative data?

Words. Interview and questionnaires.

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Give two measures of dispersion

Range(Highest and Lowest)

Standard deviation(All data)

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What are the correlation coefficients?

Perfect = 1      (Strong Correlation)

Negative = -1  (Strong Correlation)

Nothing = 0     (No Correlation)

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