A mental representative of how you see something.
A basic building block of intelligent behaviour - a way of organizing knolwedge.
They enable us to organize, store and interpret information about our experiences.
When we use our existing knowledge to make sense of new situations, and changing this knowledge when existing knowledge is inadequate.
Adaptation occurs through two processes ; assimilation and accomodation.
Assimilation and Accommodation
Assimilation - The process of incorporating our experiences into already existing schemas.
Accommodation - the process of modifying existing schemas in order to meet the demands of new experiences.
When a child has assimlated the schemas for all its experiences, it is in a stae of equilibration
However they will come across new experiences that will create an imbalance.
Piaget - 1896 - 1980.
Born in Switzerland
Married with 3 children
Interested in childrens cognitive development
He was the first to study cognitive development.
demonstrated that children think differenlty to adults
Observation and experiment were the rearch methods used.
His research was conducted on his own children and his friends children.
Stage one - The sensorimotor stage
Birth to Two years
1 = birth to 8 months - little evidence of thinking
no awareness of past or present
Deals with the world through sensations and movements.
2 = 8 to 24 months - actions become intentional
simple pretend play
Aim - To identify the age at which babies devlop object permanence
Results - Babies at 10 months old continued to reach forthe toy, showing they have object permanence; those yunger than this ave not yet developed it as they didnt look for the toy.
Conclusion - By the age of ten months, babies understand that if they can no longer see an object, it still exists.
Stage Two - Preoperational Stage
Two Sub sections - Preconceptual period and Intuitive Period
Preconceptual Period - 2-4 years
Intuitive Period - 4-7 years
Clear evidence of thinking
Thought isnt always logical
cant form mental operations
2 - 4 years
Child makes more use of symbols, e.g boxes to make train
shows 3 errors in thought ;
the inability to see from other people point of view
The three mountains task.