Product Design Revision

  • Created by: lou123
  • Created on: 26-06-16 13:32

Evolution of Products and Design Movements

Market Pull - Changing a product to fit what the market now wants (consumer demand)

Technology Push - Manufacturerers can use new technology to develop exisiting or create new products. It might make them better, cheaper, nicer looking etc.


  • Arts and Crafts - William Moris - Patterns found in nature, upright and angular, handmade
  • Art Nouveuu - Flowing and curvy. Floral or insect motifs
  • Art Deco - Geometic shapes, zigzag, sweeping curves, sunset motifs
  • Bauhaus - form follows funtion, black leather and chrome tubing
  • De Stijl - Simple shapes, vertical and horizontal lines and primary colours
  • Postmodernist- rejected form follows function
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Ergonomics and Anthrometrics

Ergonomics is about how easy and comforable a product is to use 

e.g. things have to be the right height and shape to fit a person 

Anthropometrics is the body mesurment data that designers use to make sure a rpoduct is the right size and shape

Designers try to make products fit the 5th-95th percentile of people from anthropometric data

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TM, ®, ©, Registered design

A trademark is a symbol, word, logo etc. that is associated with a company or product. If someone then steals this trademark they can be sued.

If a trademark is regisered with the Intellectual Property Office it is then shown by the  ® (R) Symbol.

Copyright automatically protects any new ideas that are produced, so no one can steal your design without the copyright owners permission. Copyright runs out 70 years after the owner's death.

Registered Design prevents other people copying the shape and appearance of the design.

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Has several functions:

  • Containing and holding together all the seperate parts of the prodct
  • Informing the costomer about what the product is and other imformation throght relevant symobol
  • Protecting the product during transportation or movement
  • Transporting it efficiently by being able to store the products well 
  • Preserving some products that might go off by having sealed packaging
  • Display the product
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Packaging Symbols

Image result for hazard symbol irritantHazard Symbol

Image result for hazard symbol irritantIrritant 

Image result for flammable symbolFlammable


Image result for environmental hazard symbolEnvironmental Hazard

Image result for bsiKitemark - meets the BSI standards

( meets the european standards for safety

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Quality checks at every stage help the product to:

  • do the job its supposed to 
  • meet the standards laid out by relevant institutions
  • kepp the costomer happy
  • be manufactured consistently

Quality Circle - a group of workers who meet to discuss issues and find ways of solving them

Companies that do QA well can be awarded an ISO 9000 - an international standard of quality management

Quality control means checking components to make sure hey meet manufacting specifications

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Ethics and Environmental

Carbon Footprint - the amount of greenhouse gases a product produces (from making, transporting or using it)

The 6R'S:

  • Repair - repairing a product instead of buying a new one
  • Reuse - Reusing a product multipule times or fo another use 
  • Recycle - recyling materials so new raw new dont have to be extracted/made
  • Rethink - Thinking about a design to make it more sustainable etc.
  • Refuse - refusing to buy an unsustainable product
  • Reduce - Make ling lasting, durable products so consumers dont have to buy lots

Fairtrade certification - used on products that meet international standards of fair trade, shows the consumer that the producers have been paid a stable and stable price which covers the cost of sustainable production

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Press Moulding for Thermosetting Plastic:

  • Thermosetting plastic powder is put into a mould
  • a former is pressed into it and presses the plastic into the mould
  • high temperatures and pressures melt the plastic and its set into a permanent shape

Vacuum forming;

  • a mould is put onto the vacuum bed a sheet of thermoplastic above it
  • thermoplastic heated slightly until it is softened
  • mould brought up to the plastic
  • air is sucked out creating a vacuum that forces the plastic onto he mould

Blow moulding:

  • a thin tue of plastic is placed in a solid mould
  • air is injected in forcing the plastic to expand to the shape of the mould
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Moulding 2

Die casting;

  • the material is melted and poured into the mould which is the shape of the product
  • metals and thermoplastics

injection moulding:

  • for plastics
  • like die casting but the molten material is forced into the closed mould using pressure
  • automatic and continuous


  • similar to injection
  • material is melted and forced under pressure through a die
  • produces long continuous strips the same size as the exit hole
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Process: Trees cut down, bark stripped, cut into small bits by chipper, heated with chemicals to turn into a mushy pulp, bleached, pressed between rollers, dried, cut to size

  • Catridge paper - high quality and textured
  • Solid white board - high quality, ideal for priting, used for packaging
  • Corrugated card - good protecting packaging
  • Duplex - different colou/texure on each side. One side for printing
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Grown in warmer climates and is slow growing, so more expensive

Harder and denser than soft wood

  • Mahogany - easy to work with but expensive - good high quality furniture
  • teak - hard and weather resistant but expensive - outdoor furniture and window frames
  • Ash - tough and flexible
  • Beech - chairs and toys


  • wood is felled and the bark is stripped, sawn up
  • wood is seasoned by drying it - makes it stronger
  • cut into a useful form
  • finished to protect it:
    • woodstain to enhance its appearance
    • oil maintains appearance and protection for outdor wood
    • varnish - seal and protect its surface
    • paint
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Manufactured boards

  • Plywood - layers of wood glued with grain at 90deg to eachother - strong for its weight and can be bent - can be finished with veneer to make it look nicer
  • Blockboard - not as stong but is a cheap substitute - strips of soft wood sandwhiched between 2 layers of veneer on each side
  • chipboard - cheap not strong - compressing wood particules together with glue
  • MDF - cheap, denser and stronger than chipboard, doesnt warp when wet - wood fibres mixed with glue, heated and compressed into panels


  • have to seal them first so they dont soak up and need lots of paint
  • can apply a laminate
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Thermoplastics can be reheated and remoulded

they are easity formed into shapes, but dont resist heat well. they are recycleable

  • LDPE - soft and flexible - used for packaging, carrier bags
  • HDPE - stiff and strong but light - baskets, folding chairs
  • PET - light, strong, tough - drinks bottles 
  • PS - white, lightweight, crumbly - in packaging to protect - think styrofoam
  • HIPS - rigid and cheap - vacuum forming
  • PVC - brittle, cheap, durable - blister packs
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once moulded, cannot be remoulded

resist heat, non recycable, hard and rigid

  • Epoxy Resin - rigid, durable, corrosion resistant
  • UF - hard, brittle, good electrical insulator - plug sockets
  • Glass refinforced plastic - thermosetting plastic mixed with glass strands to make it really strong
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New Materials

  • Cornstarch polymers - made from maize so biodegradeable, sustainable
  • Thermochromic materials - change colour when thy heat
  • Shape memory alloys - easily shaped when cool, but turn back to original when heated e.g. nitinol for races
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