Populaton Change


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Key Words

Population Change = change in size of a population after natural change and migration have been taken into account

Natural Change = size of a population caused by the interrelationship between birth and death rate

Birth Rate = number of live births per 1000 per year

Death Rate = number of deaths per 1000 per year

Fertility = number of live births per 1000 women age 15 to 49 per year, also average number of children that a women will have

Infant Mortality = number of death of infants under the age of 1 per 1000 lives births per year

Life expectancy = average number of years that a person is expected to live

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Population Structure = make up of a population of an area in the form of age and sex distribution

Population Density = the number of people per unit area

Migration = permanent of semi permanent change of residence of an individual or group of people

Force Migration = migrant has to move because of circumstances in their country

International Migration = movement of people across nations for minimum of  1 year

Net Migration = difference between number of in migrants and number of out migrants

Voluntary Migration = migrant makes the decision to move

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Over population = too many people in an area for the amount of resources(Bangladesh, China)

Under population = too few people in an area to the amount of resources, (Canada 2nd largest country but population smaller that the UK)

Optimum Population = theoretical population which with all the available resources will create a high standard of living

Populatition of earth = 6.8 billion

Population of eurpoe = 731 million

Population of UK = 61 million

Cause of Death in MEDC's are cancer, heart disease, stroke, lunger disease.

Population growth is higher in LEDCS

All MEDCS have a fertlity rate below 2.1

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Demographic Transition Model

High Fluctuating = stage 1, high birth and death rate, population growth is small due to limited birth control, high infant mortality rate, poor nutrition, famine, poor hygiene

Early Expanding = stage 2, high birth rate and falling death rate, population expands rapidly, due to improved health, better nutrients, improved medical provision

Late Expanding = stage 3, falling birth and death rate, population slows down in growth, preference for smaller families, personal wealth

Low Fluctuating = stage 4, low birth and death rate, population growth is small, more women in workplace and have more independent lifestyles

Stage 5 = decline, when the death rate slightly exceeds the birth rate.

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Reasons to Migrate include: economic, family, political, voluntary,

The UK Border Agency protects the effects of migration.

Migration affects the population structure of both countries.

Country they are leaving:
- younger people migrate leaving the older behind,
- males more likely to migrate causing indention on the population pyramid
- birth rate falls, death rate increases

Country arriving to:
- proportion of the young will increase
- expansion on male side
- birth rate rises, death rate falls

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Pro natalist = encourage children, Italy, Japan, France

France = baby boom put strain on schools and nurse shortages. 1.9 children per women

Anti natalist = tries to reduce fertility rates and limit population growth, China

China = one child policy

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