Bangladesh, South Asia, 2007 July and August
- Regular floods in late summer. Monsoon climate 80% rain in four months.
- 90% land is less than 10m above sea level.
- Brahmaputra river discharge increased by melting snow and ice from Himalayas.
- Monsoon came suddenly after very dry and early summer.
- heavy rainfall Assam record 169.5mm in 24 hours on 22nd July (900mm in total for july)
- ground completely saturated due to long heavy rainfall, increased surface runoff and discharge
- peak discharges for Ganges, Brahmaputra coincided increaseing discharge downstream.
- Deforestation in Nepal and Himalayas meant less interception and increased discharge.
- growth of urban areas due to migration increased amount of surface runoff.
- Collapse of old earth dams in Madhya Pradesh, India caused further flooding.
Impacts of flooding in Bangladesh 2007
- Over 2000 people died.
- Wells became polluted with sewage, over 100,000 poeple caught water-borne diseases e.g dysentery/diarrhoea.
- Estimated 25 million made homeless.
- Dhaka inundated especially poorer districts and shanty towns near river.
- 4000 schools affected and 44 destroyed.
- Estimated $1 billion due to damge to crops and property.
- Factories closde around Dhaka, poorest became unemployed.
- Widespread loss of livestock e.g 80% of country rely on agriculture.
- world price of Basmati rice rose by 10%, 550,000 hecters couldn't be planted at peak time.
- 10,000km of roads destroyed. landslides blocked roads in Nepal and Assam highlands.
- Increased debt. Farmers for food/seeds. governments imported food and medicine.
Carlisle, Cumbria, 2005 8th January
River Eden runs through North Cumbria reaching sea near Carlisle.
- Large Drainage basin, large volume of rainfall leads to high river discharge.
- Parts of basin have Steep sides water runs quickly into river.
- Many streams drain quickly into basin making a short lag time.
- Heavy rainfall on 6th January for 36 hours. 200mm of rainfall recored equv of four months.
- Rain fell on saturated ground water didn't soak into ground, went straight into river.
- Very high peak discharge (over 1520 cumecs) compared to average 52 cumecs.
- Carlisle large built-up area, impermiable concrete and tarmac surfaces, little soil/vegetation. causing little infiltration and high surface runoff.
- Drains and sewage systems overflowed becoming source of flooding. 25% of flooding problems were associated with overflowing drains.
Impacts of flooding in Carlisle, Cumbria
- Three people died.
- Over 3000 people made homeless and thousands of personal possessions damaged.
- Children lost education, four schools severly flooded.
- Increase in stress-related illnesses.
- took a year to repair damage to homes, costing over £100 million.
- 350 businesses had to shut down, no electricity, telephone service or transport.
- United Biscuits largest employer flooded 3m of water £5 million damage. 33/1000 lost jobs.
- 70 000 addresses had no power, sewage works and police station severely flooded.
- 80 buses most of public fleet destroyed. Roads and bridges damaged Warwick Road.
- Floods increased river bank erosion, rivers polluted with rubish and sewage.
- asthetic scenery attracts tourism.
- Antarctica Treaty System. 50 members developed in 1961.
- Number of tourists risen from 6700 in 1992 to 46,000 in 2008.
Damage to ecosystems
- Fishing disrupts food chains. Krill fishing in Southern Ocean deplete food for whales and penguins. overfishing of Patagonian Toothfish in Antarctica.
- Large cruise ships increase pollution. development of roads and hotels disrupts widelife.
Arctic tundra is found in Greenland, Northern Russia and Canada.
- Minerals e.g gold in Canada and Alaska lead to development in tundra areas.
- Oil exploitation in Alaska over last century.
Damage to ecosystems.
- Bottom trawling disrupts ecosystems, increases turbidity reducing light levels. Gulf of Alaska, Greenland Sea and the Barents Sea.
- Oil spills occur during transport. 189 huge spill of coast of Alaskam Exxib Valdez oil tanker crashed, 40 million liters of oil spillt, killing 250,000 birds and fish.
- Pipelines Leak causing oil spils, 1977-94 average 30-40 spills a year from Trans-Alaska pipeline, some by intentional attacts or forest fires.
- Mining creates ground/surface water contamination. Lead-zinc mine in Maarmorilik (Greenland) closed 1990 lead and zinc still released pollution near fjords.
- National parks, Denali National Park Alaska 1917, cars Banned fishing quotas inBarents Sea. oil pipes have automatic shut-off balves minimise oil spills.
Effect of development on locals in Alaska
Inuit people live in Northern canada, Greenland and Russia.
- Native tribes lived in tundra climate for thousands of years.
- Newcomers from Europe and US interest in tundra since 17th century opportunites for whale and seal hunting. whales for Oil which is used to fuel lamps and make candels.
- Newcomes had negative effect on natives, brought new diseases
- Late 19th century 90% of Inuvialuit (Canadian tribe) killed by tuberculosis,measles and flu.
- Increase of whaling,selaing and fishing reduced numbers of animals available for Inuit people
Lifestyle change required
- Not enough resources for Inuit tribe to support themselves by hunting and fishing, must find paid employment.
- Young Inuits don't learn traditional skills.
- Few jobs available go to more educated white population.
- Unempoloyment nearly 50% amongst Inuit communities, have to rely on government help.
- Change in employment led to Inuits living in Permanent settlements rather than nomadic.
UK Demographic history
Stage 1 (prehistoric to about 1760) and tribes in Brazilian rainforest.
- Total population small 6 million in 1700
Poor diet and hygiene, wars and diseases such as black Death, caused high DR
Stage 2 (1760-1880) and Nepal/Afghanistan.
- Populaton grows quickly, 5 times bigger by 1880's (30 million). improvments in farming and medicine reduce starvation and disease so DR falls Birth rate remains high economy grows.
Stage 3 (1880 - 1940) and Egypt.
- Population continues to grow but slower, 41 million by 1941. Birth control improved BR falls. Death rate continued to fall except WW1. food supply, medicine, hygine all improve.
Stage 4 (1940-today) and most of Europe and USA.
- Growth slowed down, 56 million by 1981. DR low except during WW2, BR low except baby booms after WW" and 60s.