China's One Child Policy
- Since 1950s experienced great changes in population
- Baby booms in 1950-60 increased population from 562 million to over 820 million
- Increase in population also caused by rapid falling death rates which created a population growth of 2.8%
- 1970, china has ¼ of world population, only 7% of arable land
- China feared war, disease and famine
- 1979, one child policy. Regulations that restrict family size and late marriage.
- Generally illegal to have more than one child, fined if do
- Strongly controlled in urban areas. Rural families allowed two children if first was female or disabled
- Increase in the number of forced abortions and sterilizations
- Underpinned by a system of rewards and penalties, vary hugely from area to area
- Very successful (Growth rate decrease from 2.8% to 0.628%)
- Gender ratio in China a problem, as girls not wanted
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Byker Ward - Inner City
- East of city centre
- Population of 8220
- Houses had poor amenities and by 1960 had fallen into a poor state of repair
- House scheme was designed to rehouse many people in the area. Some others were moved out to new council estates on the edge of the city.
- Redevelopment included the high rise Byker wall which shelters many low rise housing areas from noise
- Social housing at present, 58% live in council housing
- 7% unemployed
- Mainly white people : 95.43%
- Health is good for 54% of people
- 2094 people are Level E of social grade (State benefit, unemployed lowest grade workers)
- 2820 people have no qualifications
- 21.26% of the population are between 30 and 44 years old
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Long Horsley - Rural
- 30 km north of Newcastle
- Population of 1495
- Was a stopping place for drovers who led cattle down from the hills of Scotland. In 1950 changed to a successful farming village
- There were 3 farms, a number of small holdings and around 500 inhabitants
- Has changed into a commuter area. Also used by non agricultural workers who want to keep horses. Farms have been developed into houses and a number of large private house have been built on the edge of the village
- 97% white
- Health is good for 74%
- 422 people are A/B social grade (higher/intermediate managerial / administrative / professional)
- 391 people have level 4/5 qualifications
- 1.46% unemployed
- 21.77% are between 45 and 59 years old
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France - Pro Natalist Policy
A policy which aims to enourage more births through the use of incentives
The decline in fertility and the increase in life length has raised three concerns:
- A decrease in the supply of labour
- The socioeconomic implications of an ageing population
- The long term prospect of population decline and demise
1939- Frances Pro Natalist Policy
- Payment of up to £1064 to couples having their third child.
- Family allowances to increase the purchasing power of three child families.
- Maternity leave on near full pay for 20 weeks for the first child to 40 weeks or more for the third child.
- 100% mortgage and preferential treatment in the allocation of three bedroom council flats.
- Full tax benefits to parents until the youngest child reaches 18.
- 30% fare reduction on all public transport for three child families.
- Pension schemes for mothers/housewives.
- Child-orientated development policies e.g. provisioning of creches, day nurseries etc.
- Depending on the family’s income, childcare costs from virtually nothing to around €500 a month for the most well off of families.
- Nursing mothers are encourage to work part-time or take a weekly day off work.
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