Physical features of coastal environments
Different rock types - Process features such as: cliffs, arches and stacks.
Coastal erosion - Create sheltered inlets and natural harbours.
Rivers - Wide tidal estuaries are formed.
Beaches - Formed where the sea deposits eroded material e.g. pebbles or sand.
Flood plains - Regularly flooded.
Coastal ecosystems - Important breeding grounds for many species of fish.
Coastal environments encourage different types of
Dramatic scenery - Attracts tourists e.g. the Jurassic Coast Hetitage Site. Natural harbours - Allow easy access which attacts industry to the area e.g. Shell have located in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil. Estuaries - Allow easy access, encourage port development and attract industry. Beaches with a equable climate - Attracts tourists e.g. Costa Brava, Spain. Some Coastal ecosystems - Attracts fishing and tourists e.g. the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
Increased development causes coastal population gr
1. The physical factors: accessibility, fertile soil, equable climate, dramatic scenery and high biodiversity lead to an increase in fishing, tourism or industry.
- An increase in fishing, tourism or industrial/port development in an area causes an increase in population.
- People are attracted to live there because of opportunities for employment.
2. Also, land is often flat which means homes and business can be built much easier.
- This encourages people to live and locate business in these areas, causing population growth.
Brighton Case Study
Brighton is a coastal city in East Sussex on the English Channel coast.
Brighton has seen population growth due to:
- Potential for fishing
- Industrial development
Brighton Case Study - Potential for fishing
Potential for fishing
- Brighton initially grew as a fishing village.
- People moved to Brighton because of jobs available as a fisherman.
Brighton Case Study - Tourism
- In the 18th Century, bathing in seawater was seen as being good for your health.
- Rich people began to go to Brighton to be cured.
- Brighton attracted wealthy tourists.
- People migrated to the area, attracted by the jobs that tourism has provided.
Brighton Case Study - Accessibility
- A railway was built between Brighton and London.
- Improved accessibility meant that working class people could go to Brighton on day trips.
- This saw the growth of mass tourism.
- Between 1841 and 1881, Brighton's population rose from 15,000 to over 135,000.
Brighton Case Study - Industrial Development
- Since the 1970s there has been a decline in tourists holidaying in British resorts.
- Brighton has redeveloped itself as a centre for other tertiary and quaternary industries.
- It now attracts a large amount of people who work in the media sector.
Dubai case study
Dubai is in the United Arab Emirates, on the Persian Gulf coast.
It has experienced different periods of growth for different reasons:
- Location and trade links
- Industrial and port development
- Providing tax incentives for buisinesses
Dubai case study - Location and trade links
Location and trade inks
- Dubai's geographical proximity to India made it an important trading centre between Asia and Europe.
- Many traders settled in the city.
- Until the 1930s it was known for its pearl exports.
Dubai case study - Industrial and port development
Dubail case study - Providing tax incentives for b
Providing tax incentives for buisinesses
- It was clear that the oil wouldn't last.
- Money from oil exports were used to diversify the economy to promote continued growth.
- They offered tax incentives to international businesses.
- Global businesses such as: Microsoft located there.
- These attracted both domestic and foreign workers to Dubai.
Dubai case study - Tourism
- Over the last 10 years, tourism has become important to the growth of Dubai.
- The Dubai government is investing heavily in tourist infrastructure.
- They hope to attract 10 million tourists per year by 2010.
- Huge construction projects have contributed to a doubling in Dubai's population since 1993.
- Less than 20% of the 1.4 million people live in Dubai are native.
How to research factors affecting population growt
How to research factors affecting population growth
1. You could look at historical documents and maps to see how land use has changed over time.
This may indicate a change in factors influencing growth of the population.
2. Look at cencus data to find out population numbers.
3. Check out local newspapers to find information on development projects, which could be tied to an increase in population.
4. Look at holiday brochures to see what attracts tourists to the area.
How to do fieldwork to investigate population grow
Fieldwork to investigate population growth
1. Look at Land use surveys and look for visible evidence of economic development in a UK location and try and link the results to the factors looked at previously.
2. Conduct a survey for local people of a range of ages to find out why they moved to the area.
3. Tourists could also be surveyed to find out what attracted them to the area.
Practice Exam Question
For two contrasting coastal locations, explain why their population has grown rapidly. (10 marks)
- You need to write about two very different locations.
- You could cover either the development of a wealthy and poor location or the development of an industrial port and a tourist resort.
- The question is asking you to explain (give reasons) why the population of two locations has grown rapidly.
- So you need to write about the causes of the growth.
- Make sure you include plenty of relevant facts about the two locations.